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Date:   Tue, 10 Mar 2020 10:52:29 -0700
From:   Yonghong Song <yhs@...com>
To:     John Fastabend <john.fastabend@...il.com>,
        <alexei.starovoitov@...il.com>, <daniel@...earbox.net>
CC:     <netdev@...r.kernel.org>, <bpf@...r.kernel.org>
Subject: Re: [RFC PATCH 2/4] bpf: verifier, do explicit u32 bounds tracking



On 3/6/20 4:11 PM, John Fastabend wrote:
> It is not possible for the current verifier to track u32 alu ops and jmps
> correctly. This can result in the verifier aborting with errors even though
> the program should be verifiable. Cilium code base has hit this but worked
> around it by changing int variables to u64 variables and marking a few
> things volatile. It would be better to avoid these tricks.
> 
> But, the main reason to address this now is do_refine_retval_range() was
> assuming return values could not be negative. Once we fix this in the
> next patches code that was previously working will no longer work.
> See do_refine_retval_range() patch for details.
> 
> The simplest example code snippet that illustrates the problem is likelyy
> this,
> 
>   53: w8 = w0                    // r8 <- [0, S32_MAX],
>                                  // w8 <- [-S32_MIN, X]
>   54: w8 <s 0                    // r8 <- [0, U32_MAX]
>                                  // w8 <- [0, X]
> 
> The expected 64-bit and 32-bit bounds after each line are shown on the
> right. The current issue is without the w* bounds we are forced to use
> the worst case bound of [0, U32_MAX]. To resolve this type of case,
> jmp32 creating divergent 32-bit bounds from 64-bit bounds, we add explicit
> 32-bit register bounds s32_{min|max}_value, u32_{min|max}_value, and
> var32_off. Then from branch_taken logic creating new bounds we can
> track 32-bit bounds explicitly.
> 
> The next case we observed is ALU ops after the jmp32,
> 
>   53: w8 = w0                    // r8 <- [0, S32_MAX],
>                                  // w8 <- [-S32_MIN, X]
>   54: w8 <s 0                    // r8 <- [0, U32_MAX]
>                                  // w8 <- [0, X]
>   55: w8 += 1                    // r8 <- [0, U32_MAX+1]
>                                  // w8 <- [0, X+1]
> 
> In order to keep the bounds accurate at this point we also need to track
> ALU32 ops. To do this we add explicit alu32 logic for each of the alu
> ops, mov, add, sub, etc.
> 
> Finally there is a question of how and when to merge bounds. The cases
> enumerate here,
> 
> 1. MOV ALU32   - zext 32-bit -> 64-bit
> 2. MOV ALU64   - copy 64-bit -> 32-bit
> 3. op  ALU32   - zext 32-bit -> 64-bit
> 4. op  ALU64   - n/a
> 5. jmp ALU32   - 64-bit: var32_off | var64_off
> 6. jmp ALU64   - 32-bit: (>> (<< var64_off))
> 
> Details for each case,
> 
> For "MOV ALU32" BPF arch zero extends so we simply copy the bounds
> from 32-bit into 64-bit ensuring we cast the var32_off. See zext_32_to_64.
> 
> For "MOV ALU64" copy all bounds including 32-bit into new register. If
> the src register had 32-bit bounds the dst register will as well.
> 
> For "op ALU32" zero extend 32-bit into 64-bit, see zext_32_to_64.
> 
> For "op ALU64" calculate both 32-bit and 64-bit bounds no merging
> is done here. Except we have a special case. When RSH or ARSH is
> done we can't simply ignore shifting bits from 64-bit reg into the
> 32-bit subreg. So currently just push bounds from 64-bit into 32-bit.
> This will be correct in the sense that they will represent a valid
> state of the register. However we could lose some accuracy if an
> ARSH is following a jmp32 operation. We can handle this special
> case in a follow up series.
> 
> For "jmp ALU32" mark 64-bit reg unknown and recalculate 64-bit bounds
> from tnum by setting var_off to ((<<(>>var_off)) | var32_off). We
> special case if 64-bit bounds has zero'd upper 32bits at which point
> wee can simply copy 32-bit bounds into 64-bit register. This catches
> a common compiler trick where upper 32-bits are zeroed and then
> 32-bit ops are used followed by a 64-bit compare or 64-bit op on
> a pointer. See __reg_combine_64_into_32().
> 
> For "jmp ALU64" cast the bounds of the 64bit to their 32-bit
> counterpart. For example s32_min_value = (s32)reg->smin_value. For
> tnum use only the lower 32bits via, (>>(<<var_off)). See
> __reg_combine_64_into_32().
> 
> Some questions and TBDs aka the RFC part,
> 
>   0) opinions on the approach?
> 
>   1) We currently tnum always has 64-bits even for the 32-bit tnum
>      tracking. I think ideally we convert the tnum var32_off to a
>      32-bit type so the types are correct both in the verifier and
>      from what it is tracking. But this in turn means we end up
>      with tnum32 ops. It seems to not be strictly needed though so
>      I'm saving it for a follow up series. Any thoughts?
> 
>      struct tnum {
>         u64 value;
>         u64 mask;
>      }
> 
>      struct tnum32 {
>         u32 value;
>         u32 mask;
>      }
> 
>   2) I guess this patch could be split into two and still be
>      workable. First patch to do alu32 logic and second to
>      do jmp32 logic. I slightly prefer the single big patch
>      to keep all the logic in one patch but it makes for a
>      large change. I'll tear it into two if folks care.
> 
>   3) This is passing test_verifier I need to run test_progs
>      all the way through still. My test box missed a few tests
>      due to kernel feature flags.
> 
>   4) I'm testing Cilium now as well to be sure we are still
>      working there.
> 
>   5) Do we like this approach? Should we push it all the way
>      through to stable? We need something for stable and I
>      haven't found a better solution yet. Its a good chunk
>      of code though if we do that we probably want the fuzzers
>      to run over it first.
> 
>   6) I need to do another review pass.
> 
>   7) I'm writing a set of verifier tests to exercise some of
>      the more subtle 32 vs 64-bit cases now.
> 
>   8) I have a small test patch I use with test_verifier to
>      dump the verifier state every line which I find helpful
>      I'll push it to bpf-next in case anyone else cares to
>      use it.

As reading the patch, a few minor comments below.

> Signed-off-by: John Fastabend <john.fastabend@...il.com>
> ---
>   tools/testing/selftests/bpf/test_verifier.c |    2 +-
>   1 file changed, 1 insertion(+), 1 deletion(-)
[...]
>   
> +/* BPF architecture zero extends alu32 ops into 64-bit registesr */
> +static void zext_32_to_64(struct bpf_reg_state *reg)
> +{
> +	reg->var_off = reg->var32_off = tnum_cast(reg->var32_off, 4);
> +	reg->umin_value = reg->smin_value = reg->u32_min_value;

reg->smin_value = reg->u32_min_value? Could you explain?

> +	reg->umax_value = reg->smax_value = reg->u32_max_value;
> +}
>   
>   /* truncate register to smaller size (in bytes)
>    * must be called with size < BPF_REG_SIZE
> @@ -2791,6 +2957,7 @@ static int check_tp_buffer_access(struct bpf_verifier_env *env,
>   static void coerce_reg_to_size(struct bpf_reg_state *reg, int size)
>   {
>   	u64 mask;
> +	u32 u32mask;
>   
>   	/* clear high bits in bit representation */
>   	reg->var_off = tnum_cast(reg->var_off, size);
> @@ -2804,8 +2971,36 @@ static void coerce_reg_to_size(struct bpf_reg_state *reg, int size)
>   		reg->umin_value = 0;
>   		reg->umax_value = mask;
>   	}
> +
> +	/* TBD this is its own patch */
> +	if (reg->smin_value < 0 || reg->smax_value > reg->umax_value)

When reg->smax_value > reg->umax_value could happen?

> +		reg->smax_value = reg->umax_value;
> +	else
> +		reg->umax_value = reg->smax_value;

Not quite understand the above logic.


>   	reg->smin_value = reg->umin_value;
> -	reg->smax_value = reg->umax_value;
> +
> +	/* If size is smaller than 32bit register the 32bit register
> +	 * values are also truncated.
> +	 */
> +	if (size >= 4) {
> +		reg->var32_off = tnum_cast(reg->var_off, 4);
> +		return;
> +	}
> +
> +	reg->var32_off = tnum_cast(reg->var_off, size);
> +	u32mask = ((u32)1 << (size *8)) - 1;

Looks like here u32mask trying to remove the 32bit sign and try to 
compare values. Not quite follow the logic below.

> +	if ((reg->u32_min_value & ~u32mask) == (reg->u32_max_value & ~u32mask)) {
> +		reg->u32_min_value &= mask;
> +		reg->u32_max_value &= mask;
> +	} else {
> +		reg->u32_min_value = 0;
> +		reg->u32_max_value = mask;
> +	}
> +	if (reg->s32_min_value < 0 || reg->s32_max_value > reg->u32_max_value)
> +		reg->s32_max_value = reg->u32_max_value;
> +	else
> +		reg->u32_max_value = reg->s32_max_value;
> +	reg->s32_min_value = reg->u32_min_value;
>   }
>   
>   static bool bpf_map_is_rdonly(const struct bpf_map *map)
> @@ -4427,7 +4622,17 @@ static bool signed_add_overflows(s64 a, s64 b)
>   	return res < a;
>   }
>   
[...]

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