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Date:   Tue, 17 Mar 2020 13:58:32 -0700
From:   Fangrui Song <maskray@...gle.com>
To:     bpf <bpf@...r.kernel.org>, Networking <netdev@...r.kernel.org>
Cc:     Andrii Nakryiko <andrii.nakryiko@...il.com>,
        Daniel Borkmann <daniel@...earbox.net>,
        Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@...gle.com>,
        Nathan Chancellor <natechancellor@...il.com>,
        clang-built-linux@...glegroups.com,
        Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@...gle.com>,
        "David S. Miller" <davem@...emloft.net>,
        Alexei Starovoitov <ast@...nel.org>,
        Kees Cook <keescook@...omium.org>
Subject: [PATCH bpf-next v4] bpf: Support llvm-objcopy and llvm-objdump for
 vmlinux BTF


On 2020-03-17, Stanislav Fomichev wrote:
>On 03/16, Fangrui Song wrote:
>> On 2020-03-16, Andrii Nakryiko wrote:
>> > On Mon, Mar 16, 2020 at 10:21 PM Fangrui Song <maskray@...gle.com> wrote:
>> > >
>> > >
>> > > On 2020-03-16, Andrii Nakryiko wrote:
>> > > >On Mon, Mar 16, 2020 at 8:37 PM Fangrui Song <maskray@...gle.com> wrote:
>> > > >>
>> > > >> On 2020-03-16, Andrii Nakryiko wrote:
>> > > >> >On Mon, Mar 16, 2020 at 6:17 PM Fangrui Song <maskray@...gle.com> wrote:
>> > > >> >>
>> > > >> >> Simplify gen_btf logic to make it work with llvm-objcopy and
>> > > >> >> llvm-objdump.  We just need to retain one section .BTF. To do so, we can
>> > > >> >> use a simple objcopy --only-section=.BTF instead of jumping all the
>> > > >> >> hoops via an architecture-less binary file.
>> > > >> >>
>> > > >> >> We use a dd comment to change the e_type field in the ELF header from
>> > > >> >> ET_EXEC to ET_REL so that .btf.vmlinux.bin.o will be accepted by lld.
>> > > >> >>
>> > > >> >> Fixes: df786c9b9476 ("bpf: Force .BTF section start to zero when dumping from vmlinux")
>> > > >> >> Cc: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@...gle.com>
>> > > >> >> Cc: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@...gle.com>
>> > > >> >> Tested-by: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@...gle.com>
>> > > >> >> Reported-by: Nathan Chancellor <natechancellor@...il.com>
>> > > >> >> Link: https://github.com/ClangBuiltLinux/linux/issues/871
>> > > >> >> Signed-off-by: Fangrui Song <maskray@...gle.com>
>> > > >> >> ---
>> > > >> >>  scripts/link-vmlinux.sh | 13 ++-----------
>> > > >> >>  1 file changed, 2 insertions(+), 11 deletions(-)
>> > > >> >>
>> > > >> >> diff --git a/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh b/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh
>> > > >> >> index dd484e92752e..84be8d7c361d 100755
>> > > >> >> --- a/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh
>> > > >> >> +++ b/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh
>> > > >> >> @@ -120,18 +120,9 @@ gen_btf()
>> > > >> >>
>> > > >> >>         info "BTF" ${2}
>> > > >> >>         vmlinux_link ${1}
>> > > >> >> -       LLVM_OBJCOPY=${OBJCOPY} ${PAHOLE} -J ${1}
>> > > >> >
>> > > >> >Is it really tested? Seems like you just dropped .BTF generation step
>> > > >> >completely...
>> > > >>
>> > > >> Sorry, dropped the whole line:/
>> > > >> I don't know how to test .BTF . I can only check readelf -S...
>> > > >>
>> > > >> Attached the new patch.
>> > > >>
>> > > >>
>> > > >>  From 02afb9417d4f0f8d2175c94fc3797a94a95cc248 Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
>> > > >> From: Fangrui Song <maskray@...gle.com>
>> > > >> Date: Mon, 16 Mar 2020 18:02:31 -0700
>> > > >> Subject: [PATCH bpf v2] bpf: Support llvm-objcopy and llvm-objdump for
>> > > >>   vmlinux BTF
>> > > >>
>> > > >> Simplify gen_btf logic to make it work with llvm-objcopy and llvm-objdump.
>> > > >> We use a dd comment to change the e_type field in the ELF header from
>> > > >> ET_EXEC to ET_REL so that .btf.vmlinux.bin.o can be accepted by lld.
>> > > >>
>> > > >> Fixes: df786c9b9476 ("bpf: Force .BTF section start to zero when dumping from vmlinux")
>> > > >> Cc: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@...gle.com>
>> > > >> Cc: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@...gle.com>
>> > > >> Reported-by: Nathan Chancellor <natechancellor@...il.com>
>> > > >> Link: https://github.com/ClangBuiltLinux/linux/issues/871
>> > > >> Signed-off-by: Fangrui Song <maskray@...gle.com>
>> > > >> ---
>> > > >>   scripts/link-vmlinux.sh | 14 +++-----------
>> > > >>   1 file changed, 3 insertions(+), 11 deletions(-)
>> > > >>
>> > > >> diff --git a/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh b/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh
>> > > >> index dd484e92752e..b23313944c89 100755
>> > > >> --- a/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh
>> > > >> +++ b/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh
>> > > >> @@ -120,18 +120,10 @@ gen_btf()
>> > > >>
>> > > >>         info "BTF" ${2}
>> > > >>         vmlinux_link ${1}
>> > > >> -       LLVM_OBJCOPY=${OBJCOPY} ${PAHOLE} -J ${1}
>> > > >> +       ${PAHOLE} -J ${1}
>> > > >
>> > > >I'm not sure why you are touching this line at all. LLVM_OBJCOPY part
>> > > >is necessary, pahole assumes llvm-objcopy by default, but that can
>> > > >(and should for objcopy) be overridden with LLVM_OBJCOPY.
>> > >
>> > > Why is LLVM_OBJCOPY assumed? What if llvm-objcopy is not available?
>> >
>> > It's pahole assumption that we have to live with. pahole assumes
>> > llvm-objcopy internally, unless it is overriden with LLVM_OBJCOPY env
>> > var. So please revert this line otherwise you are breaking it for GCC
>> > objcopy case.
>>
>> Acknowledged. Uploaded v3.
>>
>> I added back 2>/dev/null which was removed by a previous change, to
>> suppress GNU objcopy warnings. The warnings could be annoying in V=1
>> output.
>>
>> > > This is confusing that one tool assumes llvm-objcopy while the block
>> > > below immediately uses GNU objcopy (without this patch).
>> > >
>> > > e83b9f55448afce3fe1abcd1d10db9584f8042a6 "kbuild: add ability to
>> > > generate BTF type info for vmlinux" does not say why LLVM_OBJCOPY is
>> > > set.
>> > >
>> > > >>
>> > > >> -       # dump .BTF section into raw binary file to link with final vmlinux
>> > > >> -       bin_arch=$(LANG=C ${OBJDUMP} -f ${1} | grep architecture | \
>> > > >> -               cut -d, -f1 | cut -d' ' -f2)
>> > > >> -       bin_format=$(LANG=C ${OBJDUMP} -f ${1} | grep 'file format' | \
>> > > >> -               awk '{print $4}')
>> > > >> -       ${OBJCOPY} --change-section-address .BTF=0 \
>> > > >> -               --set-section-flags .BTF=alloc -O binary \
>> > > >> -               --only-section=.BTF ${1} .btf.vmlinux.bin
>> > > >> -       ${OBJCOPY} -I binary -O ${bin_format} -B ${bin_arch} \
>> > > >> -               --rename-section .data=.BTF .btf.vmlinux.bin ${2}
>> > > >> +       # Extract .BTF section, change e_type to ET_REL, to link with final vmlinux
>> > > >> +       ${OBJCOPY} --only-section=.BTF ${1} ${2} && printf '\1' | dd of=${2} conv=notrunc bs=1 seek=16
>> > > >>   }
>> > > >>
>> > > >>   # Create ${2} .o file with all symbols from the ${1} object file
>> > > >> --
>> > > >> 2.25.1.481.gfbce0eb801-goog
>> > > >>
>>
>> From ca3597477542453e9f63185c27c162da081a4baf Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
>> From: Fangrui Song <maskray@...gle.com>
>> Date: Mon, 16 Mar 2020 22:38:23 -0700
>> Subject: [PATCH bpf v3] bpf: Support llvm-objcopy and llvm-objdump for
>>  vmlinux BTF
>>
>> Simplify gen_btf logic to make it work with llvm-objcopy and llvm-objdump.
>> Add 2>/dev/null to suppress GNU objcopy (but not llvm-objcopy) warnings
>> "empty loadable segment detected at vaddr=0xffffffff81000000, is this intentional?"
>> Our use of --only-section drops many SHF_ALLOC sections which will essentially nullify
>> program headers. When used as linker input, program headers are simply
>> ignored.
>>
>> We use a dd command to change the e_type field in the ELF header from
>> ET_EXEC to ET_REL so that .btf.vmlinux.bin.o can be accepted by lld.
>> Accepting ET_EXEC as an input file is an extremely rare GNU ld feature
>> that lld does not intend to support, because this is very error-prone.
>>
>> Fixes: df786c9b9476 ("bpf: Force .BTF section start to zero when dumping from vmlinux")
>> Cc: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@...gle.com>
>> Cc: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@...gle.com>
>> Reported-by: Nathan Chancellor <natechancellor@...il.com>
>> Link: https://github.com/ClangBuiltLinux/linux/issues/871
>> Signed-off-by: Fangrui Song <maskray@...gle.com>
>> ---
>>  scripts/link-vmlinux.sh | 12 ++----------
>>  1 file changed, 2 insertions(+), 10 deletions(-)
>>
>> diff --git a/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh b/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh
>> index dd484e92752e..c3e808a89d4a 100755
>> --- a/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh
>> +++ b/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh
>> @@ -122,16 +122,8 @@ gen_btf()
>>  	vmlinux_link ${1}
>>  	LLVM_OBJCOPY=${OBJCOPY} ${PAHOLE} -J ${1}
>> -	# dump .BTF section into raw binary file to link with final vmlinux
>> -	bin_arch=$(LANG=C ${OBJDUMP} -f ${1} | grep architecture | \
>> -		cut -d, -f1 | cut -d' ' -f2)
>> -	bin_format=$(LANG=C ${OBJDUMP} -f ${1} | grep 'file format' | \
>> -		awk '{print $4}')
>> -	${OBJCOPY} --change-section-address .BTF=0 \
>> -		--set-section-flags .BTF=alloc -O binary \
>> -		--only-section=.BTF ${1} .btf.vmlinux.bin
>> -	${OBJCOPY} -I binary -O ${bin_format} -B ${bin_arch} \
>> -		--rename-section .data=.BTF .btf.vmlinux.bin ${2}
>> +	# Extract .BTF section, change e_type to ET_REL, to link with final vmlinux
>> +	${OBJCOPY} --only-section=.BTF ${1} ${2} 2> /dev/null && printf '\1' | dd of=${2} conv=notrunc bs=1 seek=16
>No, it doesn't work unfortunately, I get "in-kernel BTF is malformed"
>from the kernel.
>
>I think that's because -O binary adds the following:
>$ nm .btf.vmxlinux.bin
>00000000002f7bc9 D _binary__btf_vmlinux_bin_end
>00000000002f7bc9 A _binary__btf_vmlinux_bin_size
>0000000000000000 D _binary__btf_vmlinux_bin_start
>
>While non-binary mode doesn't:
>$ nm .btf.vmxlinux.bin
>
>We don't add them manually in the linker map and expect objcopy to add
>them, see:
>https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/bpf/bpf-next.git/tree/kernel/bpf/btf.c#n3480

Attached v4.

* Added status=none to the dd command to suppress stderr output.
* `objcopy -I binary` synthesized symbols are only used in BTF, not
elsewhere. I think we can replace it with a more common trick,
__start_$sectionname __stop_$sectionname.
* GNU ld<2.23 can define __start_BTF and __stop_BTF as SHN_ABS.
   I think it is totally fine for a SHN_ABS symbol to be referenced by an
   R_X86_64_32S (absolute relocation), but arch/x86/tools/relocs.c
   contains an unnecessarily rigid check that rejects this.

   ...
   Invalid absolute R_X86_64_32S relocation: __start_BTF
   make[3]: *** [arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile:123:
   arch/x86/boot/compressed/vmlinux.relocs] Error 1

   Since we are going to bump binutils version requirement to 2.23, which
   will completely avoid the issue. I will not mention it again.
   https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/202003161354.538479F16@keescook/

* I should mention that an orphan BTF (previously .BTF) could trigger
   a --orphan-handling=warn warning. So eventually we might need to
   add an output section description

     BTF : { *(BTF) }

   to the vmlinux linker script for every arch.
   I'll not do that in this patch, though.

>
>>  }
>>  # Create ${2} .o file with all symbols from the ${1} object file
>> --
>> 2.25.1.481.gfbce0eb801-goog
>>

 From 9b694d68fefe041464eccb948f6d246fab67942d Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
From: Fangrui Song <maskray@...gle.com>
Date: Tue, 17 Mar 2020 13:51:04 -0700
Subject: [PATCH bpf-next v4] bpf: Support llvm-objcopy and
  llvm-objdump for vmlinux BTF

Simplify gen_btf logic to make it work with llvm-objcopy and llvm-objdump.
The existing 'file format' and 'architecture' parsing logic is brittle
and does not work with llvm-objcopy/llvm-objdump.

.BTF in .tmp_vmlinux.btf is non-SHF_ALLOC. Add the SHF_ALLOC flag and
rename .BTF to BTF so that C code can reference the section via linker
synthesized __start_BTF and __stop_BTF. This fixes a small problem that
previous .BTF had the SHF_WRITE flag. Additionally, `objcopy -I binary`
synthesized symbols _binary__btf_vmlinux_bin_start and
_binary__btf_vmlinux_bin_start (not used elsewhere) are replaced with
more common __start_BTF and __stop_BTF.

Add 2>/dev/null because GNU objcopy (but not llvm-objcopy) warns
"empty loadable segment detected at vaddr=0xffffffff81000000, is this intentional?"

We use a dd command to change the e_type field in the ELF header from
ET_EXEC to ET_REL so that lld will accept .btf.vmlinux.bin.o.  Accepting
ET_EXEC as an input file is an extremely rare GNU ld feature that lld
does not intend to support, because this is error-prone.

Fixes: df786c9b9476 ("bpf: Force .BTF section start to zero when dumping from vmlinux")
Cc: Stanislav Fomichev <sdf@...gle.com>
Cc: Nick Desaulniers <ndesaulniers@...gle.com>
Reported-by: Nathan Chancellor <natechancellor@...il.com>
Link: https://github.com/ClangBuiltLinux/linux/issues/871
Signed-off-by: Fangrui Song <maskray@...gle.com>
---
  kernel/bpf/btf.c        |  9 ++++-----
  kernel/bpf/sysfs_btf.c  | 11 +++++------
  scripts/link-vmlinux.sh | 16 ++++++----------
  3 files changed, 15 insertions(+), 21 deletions(-)

diff --git a/kernel/bpf/btf.c b/kernel/bpf/btf.c
index 787140095e58..51fff49de561 100644
--- a/kernel/bpf/btf.c
+++ b/kernel/bpf/btf.c
@@ -3477,8 +3477,8 @@ static struct btf *btf_parse(void __user *btf_data, u32 btf_data_size,
  	return ERR_PTR(err);
  }
  
-extern char __weak _binary__btf_vmlinux_bin_start[];
-extern char __weak _binary__btf_vmlinux_bin_end[];
+extern char __weak __start_BTF[];
+extern char __weak __stop_BTF[];
  extern struct btf *btf_vmlinux;
  
  #define BPF_MAP_TYPE(_id, _ops)
@@ -3605,9 +3605,8 @@ struct btf *btf_parse_vmlinux(void)
  	}
  	env->btf = btf;
  
-	btf->data = _binary__btf_vmlinux_bin_start;
-	btf->data_size = _binary__btf_vmlinux_bin_end -
-		_binary__btf_vmlinux_bin_start;
+	btf->data = __start_BTF;
+	btf->data_size = __stop_BTF - __start_BTF;
  
  	err = btf_parse_hdr(env);
  	if (err)
diff --git a/kernel/bpf/sysfs_btf.c b/kernel/bpf/sysfs_btf.c
index 7ae5dddd1fe6..3b495773de5a 100644
--- a/kernel/bpf/sysfs_btf.c
+++ b/kernel/bpf/sysfs_btf.c
@@ -9,15 +9,15 @@
  #include <linux/sysfs.h>
  
  /* See scripts/link-vmlinux.sh, gen_btf() func for details */
-extern char __weak _binary__btf_vmlinux_bin_start[];
-extern char __weak _binary__btf_vmlinux_bin_end[];
+extern char __weak __start_BTF[];
+extern char __weak __stop_BTF[];
  
  static ssize_t
  btf_vmlinux_read(struct file *file, struct kobject *kobj,
  		 struct bin_attribute *bin_attr,
  		 char *buf, loff_t off, size_t len)
  {
-	memcpy(buf, _binary__btf_vmlinux_bin_start + off, len);
+	memcpy(buf, __start_BTF + off, len);
  	return len;
  }
  
@@ -30,15 +30,14 @@ static struct kobject *btf_kobj;
  
  static int __init btf_vmlinux_init(void)
  {
-	if (!_binary__btf_vmlinux_bin_start)
+	if (!__start_BTF)
  		return 0;
  
  	btf_kobj = kobject_create_and_add("btf", kernel_kobj);
  	if (!btf_kobj)
  		return -ENOMEM;
  
-	bin_attr_btf_vmlinux.size = _binary__btf_vmlinux_bin_end -
-				    _binary__btf_vmlinux_bin_start;
+	bin_attr_btf_vmlinux.size = __stop_BTF - __start_BTF;
  
  	return sysfs_create_bin_file(btf_kobj, &bin_attr_btf_vmlinux);
  }
diff --git a/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh b/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh
index dd484e92752e..c0d2ecf1bff7 100755
--- a/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh
+++ b/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh
@@ -122,16 +122,12 @@ gen_btf()
  	vmlinux_link ${1}
  	LLVM_OBJCOPY=${OBJCOPY} ${PAHOLE} -J ${1}
  
-	# dump .BTF section into raw binary file to link with final vmlinux
-	bin_arch=$(LANG=C ${OBJDUMP} -f ${1} | grep architecture | \
-		cut -d, -f1 | cut -d' ' -f2)
-	bin_format=$(LANG=C ${OBJDUMP} -f ${1} | grep 'file format' | \
-		awk '{print $4}')
-	${OBJCOPY} --change-section-address .BTF=0 \
-		--set-section-flags .BTF=alloc -O binary \
-		--only-section=.BTF ${1} .btf.vmlinux.bin
-	${OBJCOPY} -I binary -O ${bin_format} -B ${bin_arch} \
-		--rename-section .data=.BTF .btf.vmlinux.bin ${2}
+	# Extract .BTF, add SHF_ALLOC, rename to BTF so that we can reference
+	# it via linker synthesized __start_BTF and __stop_BTF. Change e_type
+	# to ET_REL so that it can be used to link final vmlinux.
+	${OBJCOPY} --only-section=.BTF --set-section-flags .BTF=alloc,readonly \
+		--rename-section .BTF=BTF ${1} ${2} 2>/dev/null && \
+		printf '\1' | dd of=${2} conv=notrunc bs=1 seek=16 status=none
  }
  
  # Create ${2} .o file with all symbols from the ${1} object file
-- 
2.25.1.481.gfbce0eb801-goog

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