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Date:   Tue, 12 May 2020 18:09:11 -0700
From:   Yonghong Song <>
To:     Andrii Nakryiko <>, <>,
        <>, <>, <>
CC:     <>, <>
Subject: Re: [PATCH v3 bpf-next 2/4] selftests/bpf: add benchmark runner

On 5/12/20 12:24 PM, Andrii Nakryiko wrote:
> While working on BPF ringbuf implementation, testing, and benchmarking, I've
> developed a pretty generic and modular benchmark runner, which seems to be
> generically useful, as I've already used it for one more purpose (testing
> fastest way to trigger BPF program, to minimize overhead of in-kernel code).
> This patch adds generic part of benchmark runner and sets up Makefile for
> extending it with more sets of benchmarks.
> Benchmarker itself operates by spinning up specified number of producer and
> consumer threads, setting up interval timer sending SIGALARM signal to
> application once a second. Every second, current snapshot with hits/drops
> counters are collected and stored in an array. Drops are useful for
> producer/consumer benchmarks in which producer might overwhelm consumers.
> Once test finishes after given amount of warm-up and testing seconds, mean and
> stddev are calculated (ignoring warm-up results) and is printed out to stdout.
> This setup seems to give consistent and accurate results.
> To validate behavior, I added two atomic counting tests: global and local.
> For global one, all the producer threads are atomically incrementing same
> counter as fast as possible. This, of course, leads to huge drop of
> performance once there is more than one producer thread due to CPUs fighting
> for the same memory location.
> Local counting, on the other hand, maintains one counter per each producer
> thread, incremented independently. Once per second, all counters are read and
> added together to form final "counting throughput" measurement. As expected,
> such setup demonstrates linear scalability with number of producers (as long
> as there are enough physical CPU cores, of course). See example output below.
> Also, this setup can nicely demonstrate disastrous effects of false sharing,
> if care is not taken to take those per-producer counters apart into
> independent cache lines.
> Demo output shows global counter first with 1 producer, then with 4. Both
> total and per-producer performance significantly drop. The last run is local
> counter with 4 producers, demonstrating near-perfect scalability.
> $ ./bench -a -w1 -d2 -p1 count-global
> Setting up benchmark 'count-global'...
> Benchmark 'count-global' started.
> Iter   0 ( 24.822us): hits  148.179M/s (148.179M/prod), drops    0.000M/s
> Iter   1 ( 37.939us): hits  149.308M/s (149.308M/prod), drops    0.000M/s
> Iter   2 (-10.774us): hits  150.717M/s (150.717M/prod), drops    0.000M/s
> Iter   3 (  3.807us): hits  151.435M/s (151.435M/prod), drops    0.000M/s
> Summary: hits  150.488 ± 1.079M/s (150.488M/prod), drops    0.000 ± 0.000M/s
> $ ./bench -a -w1 -d2 -p4 count-global
> Setting up benchmark 'count-global'...
> Benchmark 'count-global' started.
> Iter   0 ( 60.659us): hits   53.910M/s ( 13.477M/prod), drops    0.000M/s
> Iter   1 (-17.658us): hits   53.722M/s ( 13.431M/prod), drops    0.000M/s
> Iter   2 (  5.865us): hits   53.495M/s ( 13.374M/prod), drops    0.000M/s
> Iter   3 (  0.104us): hits   53.606M/s ( 13.402M/prod), drops    0.000M/s
> Summary: hits   53.608 ± 0.113M/s ( 13.402M/prod), drops    0.000 ± 0.000M/s
> $ ./bench -a -w1 -d2 -p4 count-local
> Setting up benchmark 'count-local'...
> Benchmark 'count-local' started.
> Iter   0 ( 23.388us): hits  640.450M/s (160.113M/prod), drops    0.000M/s
> Iter   1 (  2.291us): hits  605.661M/s (151.415M/prod), drops    0.000M/s
> Iter   2 ( -6.415us): hits  607.092M/s (151.773M/prod), drops    0.000M/s
> Iter   3 ( -1.361us): hits  601.796M/s (150.449M/prod), drops    0.000M/s
> Summary: hits  604.849 ± 2.739M/s (151.212M/prod), drops    0.000 ± 0.000M/s
> Benchmark runner supports setting thread affinity for producer and consumer
> threads. You can use -a flag for default CPU selection scheme, where first
> consumer gets CPU #0, next one gets CPU #1, and so on. Then producer threads
> pick up next CPU and increment one-by-one as well. But user can also specify
> a set of CPUs independently for producers and consumers with --prod-affinity
> 1,2-10,15 and --cons-affinity <set-of-cpus>. The latter allows to force
> producers and consumers to share same set of CPUs, if necessary.
> Signed-off-by: Andrii Nakryiko <>
Acked-by: Yonghong Song <>

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