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Date:   Wed, 13 May 2020 17:45:51 -0700
From:   Yonghong Song <yhs@...com>
To:     Alan Maguire <alan.maguire@...cle.com>, <ast@...nel.org>,
        <daniel@...earbox.net>, <bpf@...r.kernel.org>
CC:     <joe@...ches.com>, <linux@...musvillemoes.dk>,
        <arnaldo.melo@...il.com>, <kafai@...com>, <songliubraving@...com>,
        <andriin@...com>, <john.fastabend@...il.com>,
        <kpsingh@...omium.org>, <linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org>,
        <netdev@...r.kernel.org>
Subject: Re: [PATCH v2 bpf-next 4/7] printk: add type-printing %pT format
 specifier which uses BTF



On 5/11/20 10:56 PM, Alan Maguire wrote:
> printk supports multiple pointer object type specifiers (printing
> netdev features etc).  Extend this support using BTF to cover
> arbitrary types.  "%pT" specifies the typed format, and the pointer
> argument is a "struct btf_ptr *" where struct btf_ptr is as follows:
> 
> struct btf_ptr {
> 	void *ptr;
> 	const char *type;
> 	u32 id;
> };
> 
> Either the "type" string ("struct sk_buff") or the BTF "id" can be
> used to identify the type to use in displaying the associated "ptr"
> value.  A convenience function to create and point at the struct
> is provided:
> 
> 	printk(KERN_INFO "%pT", BTF_PTR_TYPE(skb, struct sk_buff));
> 
> When invoked, BTF information is used to traverse the sk_buff *
> and display it.  Support is present for structs, unions, enums,
> typedefs and core types (though in the latter case there's not
> much value in using this feature of course).
> 
> Default output is indented, but compact output can be specified
> via the 'c' option.  Type names/member values can be suppressed
> using the 'N' option.  Zero values are not displayed by default
> but can be using the '0' option.  Pointer values are obfuscated
> unless the 'x' option is specified.  As an example:
> 
>    struct sk_buff *skb = alloc_skb(64, GFP_KERNEL);
>    pr_info("%pT", BTF_PTR_TYPE(skb, struct sk_buff));
> 
> ...gives us:
> 
> (struct sk_buff){
>   .transport_header = (__u16)65535,
>   .mac_header = (__u16)65535,
>   .end = (sk_buff_data_t)192,
>   .head = (unsigned char *)000000006b71155a,
>   .data = (unsigned char *)000000006b71155a,
>   .truesize = (unsigned int)768,
>   .users = (refcount_t){
>    .refs = (atomic_t){
>     .counter = (int)1,
>    },
>   },
>   .extensions = (struct skb_ext *)00000000f486a130,
> }
> 
> printk output is truncated at 1024 bytes.  For cases where overflow
> is likely, the compact/no type names display modes may be used.
> 
> Signed-off-by: Alan Maguire <alan.maguire@...cle.com>
> ---
>   Documentation/core-api/printk-formats.rst |  15 ++++
>   include/linux/btf.h                       |   3 +-
>   include/linux/printk.h                    |  16 +++++
>   lib/Kconfig                               |  16 +++++
>   lib/vsprintf.c                            | 113 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>   5 files changed, 162 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
> 
> diff --git a/Documentation/core-api/printk-formats.rst b/Documentation/core-api/printk-formats.rst
> index 8ebe46b1..5c66097 100644
> --- a/Documentation/core-api/printk-formats.rst
> +++ b/Documentation/core-api/printk-formats.rst
> @@ -545,6 +545,21 @@ For printing netdev_features_t.
>   
>   Passed by reference.
>   
> +BTF-based printing of pointer data
> +----------------------------------
> +If '%pT' is specified, use the struct btf_ptr * along with kernel vmlinux
> +BPF Type Format (BTF) to show the typed data.  For example, specifying
> +
> +	printk(KERN_INFO "%pT", BTF_PTR_TYPE(skb, struct_sk_buff));
> +
> +will utilize BTF information to traverse the struct sk_buff * and display it.
> +
> +Supported modifers are
> + 'c' compact output (no indentation, newlines etc)
> + 'N' do not show type names
> + 'x' show raw pointers (no obfuscation)
> + '0' show zero-valued data (it is not shown by default)
> +
>   Thanks
>   ======
>   
> diff --git a/include/linux/btf.h b/include/linux/btf.h
> index d571125..7b585ab 100644
> --- a/include/linux/btf.h
> +++ b/include/linux/btf.h
> @@ -169,10 +169,11 @@ static inline const struct btf_member *btf_type_member(const struct btf_type *t)
>   	return (const struct btf_member *)(t + 1);
>   }
>   
> +struct btf *btf_parse_vmlinux(void);
> +
>   #ifdef CONFIG_BPF_SYSCALL
>   const struct btf_type *btf_type_by_id(const struct btf *btf, u32 type_id);
>   const char *btf_name_by_offset(const struct btf *btf, u32 offset);
> -struct btf *btf_parse_vmlinux(void);
>   struct btf *bpf_prog_get_target_btf(const struct bpf_prog *prog);
>   #else
>   static inline const struct btf_type *btf_type_by_id(const struct btf *btf,
> diff --git a/include/linux/printk.h b/include/linux/printk.h
> index fcde0772..3c3ea53 100644
> --- a/include/linux/printk.h
> +++ b/include/linux/printk.h
> @@ -528,4 +528,20 @@ static inline void print_hex_dump_debug(const char *prefix_str, int prefix_type,
>   #define print_hex_dump_bytes(prefix_str, prefix_type, buf, len)	\
>   	print_hex_dump_debug(prefix_str, prefix_type, 16, 1, buf, len, true)
>   
> +/**
> + * struct btf_ptr is used for %pT (typed pointer) display; the
> + * additional type string/BTF id are used to render the pointer
> + * data as the appropriate type.
> + */
> +struct btf_ptr {
> +	void *ptr;
> +	const char *type;
> +	u32 id;
> +};
> +
> +#define	BTF_PTR_TYPE(ptrval, typeval) \
> +	(&((struct btf_ptr){.ptr = ptrval, .type = #typeval}))
> +
> +#define BTF_PTR_ID(ptrval, idval) \
> +	(&((struct btf_ptr){.ptr = ptrval, .id = idval}))
>   #endif
[...]
> diff --git a/lib/vsprintf.c b/lib/vsprintf.c
> index 7c488a1..f9276f8 100644
> --- a/lib/vsprintf.c
> +++ b/lib/vsprintf.c
> @@ -43,6 +43,7 @@
>   #ifdef CONFIG_BLOCK
>   #include <linux/blkdev.h>
>   #endif
> +#include <linux/btf.h>
>   
>   #include "../mm/internal.h"	/* For the trace_print_flags arrays */
>   
> @@ -2059,6 +2060,103 @@ char *fwnode_string(char *buf, char *end, struct fwnode_handle *fwnode,
>   	return widen_string(buf, buf - buf_start, end, spec);
>   }
>   
> +#if IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_BTF_PRINTF)
> +#define btf_modifier_flag(c)	(c == 'c' ? BTF_SHOW_COMPACT :	\
> +				 c == 'N' ? BTF_SHOW_NONAME :	\
> +				 c == 'x' ? BTF_SHOW_PTR_RAW :	\
> +				 c == '0' ? BTF_SHOW_ZERO : 0)
> +
> +static noinline_for_stack
> +char *btf_string(char *buf, char *end, void *ptr, struct printf_spec spec,
> +		 const char *fmt)
> +{
> +	struct btf_ptr *bp = (struct btf_ptr *)ptr;
> +	u8 btf_kind = BTF_KIND_TYPEDEF;
> +	const struct btf_type *t;
> +	const struct btf *btf;
> +	char *buf_start = buf;
> +	const char *btf_type;
> +	u64 flags = 0, mod;
> +	s32 btf_id;
> +
> +	if (check_pointer(&buf, end, ptr, spec))
> +		return buf;
> +
> +	if (check_pointer(&buf, end, bp->ptr, spec))
> +		return buf;
> +
> +	while (isalnum(*fmt)) {
> +		mod = btf_modifier_flag(*fmt);
> +		if (!mod)
> +			break;
> +		flags |= mod;
> +		fmt++;
> +	}
> +
> +	btf = bpf_get_btf_vmlinux();
> +	if (IS_ERR_OR_NULL(btf))
> +		return ptr_to_id(buf, end, bp->ptr, spec);
> +
> +	if (bp->type != NULL) {
> +		btf_type = bp->type;
> +
> +		if (strncmp(bp->type, "struct ", strlen("struct ")) == 0) {
> +			btf_kind = BTF_KIND_STRUCT;
> +			btf_type += strlen("struct ");
> +		} else if (strncmp(btf_type, "union ", strlen("union ")) == 0) {
> +			btf_kind = BTF_KIND_UNION;
> +			btf_type += strlen("union ");
> +		} else if (strncmp(btf_type, "enum ", strlen("enum ")) == 0) {
> +			btf_kind = BTF_KIND_ENUM;
> +			btf_type += strlen("enum ");
> +		}

I think typedef should be supported here.
In kernel, we have some structure directly defined as typedef's.
A lot of internal int types also typedefs, like u32, atomic_t,
possible_net_t, etc.

A type name without prefix "struct", "union", "enum" can be
treated as a typedef first.

If the type name is not a typedef, it is then compared to a limited
number of C basic int types like "char", "unsigned char", "short",
"unsigned short", ...

> +
> +		if (strlen(btf_type) == 0)
> +			return ptr_to_id(buf, end, bp->ptr, spec);
> +
> +		/*
> +		 * Assume type specified is a typedef as there's not much
> +		 * benefit in specifying int types other than wasting time
> +		 * on BTF lookups; we optimize for the most useful path.
> +		 *
> +		 * Fall back to BTF_KIND_INT if this fails.
> +		 */
> +		btf_id = btf_find_by_name_kind(btf, btf_type, btf_kind);
> +		if (btf_id < 0)
> +			btf_id = btf_find_by_name_kind(btf, btf_type,
> +						       BTF_KIND_INT);
> +	} else if (bp->id > 0)
> +		btf_id = bp->id;
> +	else
> +		return ptr_to_id(buf, end, bp->ptr, spec);
> +
> +	if (btf_id > 0)
> +		t = btf_type_by_id(btf, btf_id);
> +	if (btf_id <= 0 || !t)
> +		return ptr_to_id(buf, end, bp->ptr, spec);
> +
> +	buf += btf_type_snprintf_show(btf, btf_id, bp->ptr, buf,
> +				      end - buf_start, flags);
> +
> +	return widen_string(buf, buf - buf_start, end, spec);
> +}
> +#else
> +static noinline_for_stack
> +char *btf_string(char *buf, char *end, void *ptr, struct printf_spec spec,
> +	const char *fmt)
> +{
> +	struct btf_ptr *bp = (struct btf_ptr *)ptr;
> +
> +	if (check_pointer(&buf, end, ptr, spec))
> +		return buf;
> +
> +	if (check_pointer(&buf, end, bp->ptr, spec))
> +		return buf;
> +
> +	return ptr_to_id(buf, end, bp->ptr, spec);
> +}
> +#endif /* IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_BTF_PRINTF) */
> +
>   /*
>    * Show a '%p' thing.  A kernel extension is that the '%p' is followed
>    * by an extra set of alphanumeric characters that are extended format
> @@ -2169,6 +2267,19 @@ char *fwnode_string(char *buf, char *end, struct fwnode_handle *fwnode,
>    *		P node name, including a possible unit address
>    * - 'x' For printing the address. Equivalent to "%lx".
>    *
> + * - 'T[cNx0]' For printing struct btf_ptr * data using BPF Type Format (BTF).
> + *
> + *			Optional arguments are
> + *			c		compact (no indentation/newlines)
> + *			N		do not print type and member names
> + *			x		do not obfuscate pointers
> + *			0		show 0-valued data
> + *
> + *    BPF_PTR_TYPE(ptr, type) can be used to place pointer and type string
> + *    in the "struct btf_ptr *" expected; for example:
> + *
> + *	printk(KERN_INFO "%pT", BTF_PTR_TYPE(skb, struct sk_buff));
> + *
>    * ** When making changes please also update:
>    *	Documentation/core-api/printk-formats.rst
>    *
> @@ -2251,6 +2362,8 @@ char *pointer(const char *fmt, char *buf, char *end, void *ptr,
>   		if (!IS_ERR(ptr))
>   			break;
>   		return err_ptr(buf, end, ptr, spec);
> +	case 'T':
> +		return btf_string(buf, end, ptr, spec, fmt + 1);
>   	}
>   
>   	/* default is to _not_ leak addresses, hash before printing */
> 

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