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Date:   Wed, 15 Jul 2020 10:34:19 -0700
From:   Yonghong Song <>
To:     Alexei Starovoitov <>
CC:     <>, <>,
        Alexei Starovoitov <>,
        Daniel Borkmann <>, <>,
        Martin KaFai Lau <>
Subject: Re: [PATCH bpf-next 03/13] bpf: support readonly buffer in verifier

On 7/13/20 4:25 PM, Alexei Starovoitov wrote:
> On Mon, Jul 13, 2020 at 09:17:42AM -0700, Yonghong Song wrote:
>> Two new readonly buffer PTR_TO_RDONLY_BUF or
>> PTR_TO_RDONLY_BUF_OR_NULL register states
>> are introduced. These new register states will be used
>> by later bpf map element iterator.
>> New register states share some similarity to
>> PTR_TO_TP_BUFFER as it will calculate accessed buffer
>> size during verification time. The accessed buffer
>> size will be later compared to other metrics during
>> later attach/link_create time.
>> Two differences between PTR_TO_TP_BUFFER and
>> PTR_TO_TP_BUFFER is for write only
>> and PTR_TO_RDONLY_BUF[_OR_NULL] is for read only.
>> In addition, a rdonly_buf_seq_id is also added to the
>> register state since it is possible for the same program
>> there could be two PTR_TO_RDONLY_BUF[_OR_NULL] ctx arguments.
>> For example, for bpf later map element iterator,
>> both key and value may be PTR_TO_TP_BUFFER_OR_NULL.
>> Similar to reg_state PTR_TO_BTF_ID_OR_NULL in bpf
>> iterator programs, PTR_TO_RDONLY_BUF_OR_NULL reg_type and
>> its rdonly_buf_seq_id can be set at
>> prog->aux->bpf_ctx_arg_aux, and bpf verifier will
>> retrieve the values during btf_ctx_access().
>> Later bpf map element iterator implementation
>> will show how such information will be assigned
>> during target registeration time.
> ...
>>   struct bpf_ctx_arg_aux {
>>   	u32 offset;
>>   	enum bpf_reg_type reg_type;
>> +	u32 rdonly_buf_seq_id;
>>   };
>> +#define BPF_MAX_RDONLY_BUF	2
>> +
>>   struct bpf_prog_aux {
>>   	atomic64_t refcnt;
>>   	u32 used_map_cnt;
>> @@ -693,6 +699,7 @@ struct bpf_prog_aux {
>>   	u32 attach_btf_id; /* in-kernel BTF type id to attach to */
>>   	u32 ctx_arg_info_size;
>>   	const struct bpf_ctx_arg_aux *ctx_arg_info;
>> +	u32 max_rdonly_access[BPF_MAX_RDONLY_BUF];
> I think PTR_TO_RDONLY_BUF approach is too limiting.
> I think the map value should probably be writable from the beginning,
> but I don't see how this RDONLY_BUF support can be naturally extended.

Agreed. Let me try to make map value read/write-able.

One thing we discussed earlier is whether and how we could make
map element deletable during iterator traversal. I will explore
this as well.

> Also key and value can be large, so just load/store is going to be
> limiting pretty quickly. People would want to use helpers to access
> key/value areas. I think any existing helper that accepts ARG_PTR_TO_MEM
> should be usable with data from this key/value.

This is a useful suggestion. I actually indeed hacked trying to
   bpf_seq_write(seq, buf, buf_size) accepts rdonly_buf register state
so bpf iterator can also copy key/value to user space through seq_file.
The bpf_seq_write 2nd arg is ARG_PTR_TO_MEM. This actually works.

I originally planned to have this as a followup. Since you mentioned 
this, I will incorporate it in the next revision.

> PTR_TO_TP_BUFFER was a quick hack for tiny scratch area.
> Here I think the verifier should be smart from the start. >
> The next patch populates bpf_ctx_arg_aux with hardcoded 0 and 1.
> imo that's too hacky. Helper definitions shouldn't be in business
> of poking into such verifier internals.

The reason I am using 0/1 so later on I can easily correlate
which rdonly_buf access size corresponds to key or value. I guess
I can have a verifier callback to given an ctx argument index to
get the access size.

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