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Date:   Wed,  5 Oct 2022 10:17:04 -0700
From:   Cong Wang <>
        Cong Wang <>
Subject: [RFC Patch v6 0/5] net_sched: introduce eBPF based Qdisc

From: Cong Wang <>

This *incomplete* patchset introduces a programmable Qdisc with eBPF.

There are a few use cases:

1. Allow customizing Qdisc's in an easier way. So that people don't
   have to write a complete Qdisc kernel module just to experiment
   some new queuing theory.

2. Solve EDT's problem. EDT calcuates the "tokens" in clsact which
   is before enqueue, it is impossible to adjust those "tokens" after
   packets get dropped in enqueue. With eBPF Qdisc, it is easy to
   be solved with a shared map between clsact and sch_bpf.

3. Replace qevents, as now the user gains much more control over the
   skb and queues.

4. Provide a new way to reuse TC filters. Currently TC relies on filter
   chain and block to reuse the TC filters, but they are too complicated
   to understand. With eBPF helper bpf_skb_tc_classify(), we can invoke
   TC filters on _any_ Qdisc (even on a different netdev) to do the

5. Potentially pave a way for ingress to queue packets, although
   current implementation is still only for egress.

6. Possibly pave a way for handling TCP protocol in TC, as rbtree itself
   is already used by TCP to handle TCP retransmission.

7. Potentially pave a way for implementing eBPF based CPU scheduler,
   because we already have task kptr and CFS is clearly based on rbtree

The goal here is to make this Qdisc as programmable as possible,
that is, to replace as many existing Qdisc's as we can, no matter
in tree or out of tree. This is why I give up on PIFO which has
serious limitations on the programmablity. More importantly, with
rbtree, it is easy to implement PIFO logic too.

Here is a summary of design decisions I made:

1. Avoid eBPF struct_ops, as it would be really hard to program
   a Qdisc with this approach, literally all the struct Qdisc_ops
   and struct Qdisc_class_ops are needed to implement. This is almost
   as hard as programming a Qdisc kernel module.

2. Introduce a generic rbtree map, which supports kptr, so that skb's
   can be stored inside.

   a) As eBPF maps are not directly visible to the kernel, we have to
   dump the stats via eBPF map API's instead of netlink.

   b) The user-space is not allowed to read the entire packets, only __sk_buff
   itself is readable, because we don't have such a use case yet and it would
   require a different API to read the data, as map values have fixed length.

   c) Multi-queue support is implemented via map-in-map, in a similar
   push/pop fasion based on rbtree too.

   d) Use the netdevice notifier to reset the packets inside skb map upon
   NETDEV_DOWN event. (TODO: need to recognize kptr type)

3. Integrate with existing TC infra. For example, if the user doesn't want
   to implement her own filters (e.g. a flow dissector), she should be able
   to re-use the existing TC filters. Another helper bpf_skb_tc_classify() is
   introduced for this purpose.

Any high-level feedback is welcome. Please kindly ignore any coding details
until RFC tag is removed.

1. actually test it
2. write a document for this Qdisc
3. add test cases and sample code

Cc: Toke Høiland-Jørgensen <>
Cc: Jamal Hadi Salim <>
Cc: Jiri Pirko <>
Signed-off-by: Cong Wang <>
v6: switch to kptr based approach

v5: mv kernel/bpf/skb_map.c net/core/skb_map.c
    implement flow map as map-in-map
    rename bpf_skb_tc_classify() and move it to net/sched/cls_api.c
    clean up eBPF qdisc program context

v4: get rid of PIFO, use rbtree directly

v3: move priority queue from sch_bpf to skb map
    introduce skb map and its helpers
    introduce bpf_skb_classify()
    use netdevice notifier to reset skb's
    Rebase on latest bpf-next

v2: Rebase on latest net-next
    Make the code more complete (but still incomplete)

Cong Wang (5):
  bpf: Introduce rbtree map
  bpf: Add map in map support to rbtree
  net_sched: introduce eBPF based Qdisc
  net_sched: Add kfuncs for storing skb
  net_sched: Introduce helper bpf_skb_tc_classify()

 include/linux/bpf.h            |   4 +
 include/linux/bpf_types.h      |   4 +
 include/uapi/linux/bpf.h       |  19 ++
 include/uapi/linux/pkt_sched.h |  17 +
 kernel/bpf/Makefile            |   2 +-
 kernel/bpf/rbtree.c            | 603 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 kernel/bpf/syscall.c           |   7 +
 net/core/filter.c              |  27 ++
 net/sched/Kconfig              |  15 +
 net/sched/Makefile             |   1 +
 net/sched/cls_api.c            |  69 ++++
 net/sched/sch_bpf.c            | 564 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 12 files changed, 1331 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
 create mode 100644 kernel/bpf/rbtree.c
 create mode 100644 net/sched/sch_bpf.c


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