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Date: Sat, 16 Feb 2013 18:24:15 +0400
From: Solar Designer <solar@...nwall.com>
To: discussions@...sword-hashing.net
Cc: Milen Rangelov <gat3way@...il.com>
Subject: Re: [PHC] Different cost settings and optional input

Milen - I don't know if you have joined us on the discussions list or
not yet, so I am CC'ing you just in case.  Please join us! :-)

On Sat, Feb 16, 2013 at 12:22:39PM +0100, Jens Steube wrote:
> > 09:29:30 gat3way | Hey are you sure about that criterion:
> > 09:29:32 gat3way | "Ability to transform an existing hash to a different cost setting without knowledge of the password."
> > 09:29:52 gat3way | assuming that was possible, it means I can change cost to 1 then attack the hash :)
> > 09:39:47 jchillerup | i think it implies transforming it into only *more* expensive versions
> > 09:40:02 jchillerup | Otherwise it wouldn't make sense :)
> 
> Of course, jchillerup is right. I think we should update the CFS to
> make that clear.

I noticed this curious wording too (in one of the drafts), but I did not
object to it because:

1. We specify nearby that we'll evaluate "Effectiveness of the cost
parameter (e.g. can the time and space expected requirements be
bypassed?)"  Thus, password hashing schemes that allow for cost
downgrades are discouraged.

2. There may be time-memory trade-offs.  If someone clever comes up with
a password hashing scheme where an existing hash may be transformed to a
higher CPU cost but lower memory cost, or vice versa, without knowledge
of the password - this may be fine, as long as this property is known
and considered in the evaluation.  A password hashing scheme should not
be automatically disqualified, nor necessarily discouraged, just for
possessing this property.  In some cases, this property may be useful.

Note that this potentially differs from scrypt's TMTO.  In scrypt, the
TMTO is available for each individual scrypt computation, without having
to do any precomputation (transforming the stored hash).  In #2 above, I
am referring to a broader class of possible TMTOs, including those that
may require significant amount of precomputation (just not knowledge or
cracking of the actual password).

In other words, I did not object because I did not want us to throw the
potential baby out with the water.  I also did not explain this until
now, though - perhaps I should have. :-)

And maybe we should revise the wording somehow... or link to this sort
of explanation, which we'd put somewhere (near the end of the FAQ, as
perhaps this is not a very frequent question, yet it may come up more
than once?)

As to TMTOs in general, there are some pros and cons to having and not
having them in a password hashing scheme.  (In fact, "not having" only
means that the TMTOs are such that they're not lucrative for almost any
attacker.  Not that they literally don't exist.)  I expect that some of
the submissions of sequential memory-hard schemes will (deliberately?)
allow for TMTOs, some will (deliberately?) defeat TMTOs, and some will
have a Boolean parameter controlling that.  All of these are welcome.

Alexander

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