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Date: Sun, 19 Jan 2014 14:04:32 -0800
From: Alex Elsayed <eternaleye@...il.com>
To: discussions@...sword-hashing.net
Subject: Re: Native server relief support for password hashing in browsers

Poul-Henning Kamp wrote:

> In message
> <3E7F59A0-A69C-45EF-9D39-68622DA14C7D@....com>, Larry
> Bugbee writes:
> 
>>Will the submissions be designed so client-side assistance will be
>>practical?
> 
> Is client-side assistance without a secure tunnel ever practical ?
> 
> I spent a lot of time researching this some years back, and concluded
> that it wasn't worth it.
> 
> It may be my lack of imagination, but every scheme I came up with,
> required strong privacy for the connection, or the NSA[1] would be able
> to deduce the password given a small-ish number of session taps.
> 
> Without going into too much detail, I don't think the salt should
> be revealed to the client and the eavesdroppers, so we cannot involve
> the client in anything from the point in the algorithm where the
> salt is mixed in.

I think detail may well be warranted here - salt is a public parameter.

> Any algorithm along the general scheme:
> 
> a = password
> for i in N:
> a = crypto_graphic_hash(a)
> [...]
> 
> Would allow some fraction of N to be offloaded to the client, but this
> is a lot less useful than you'd think.
> 
> If the number of rounds we ask the client to perform is constant,
> a trivial replay is possible.
> 
> If we ask for a variable number of rounds, you can always use a
> recorded session with a lower round-count to replay into a higher
> asked-for round-count (hint: OPIE and S/KEY)
> 
> To work around that, we could ask the client to throw half the
> entropy away:
> 
> a = password
> for i in N:
> a = crypto_graphic_hash(first_half_of(a))
> [...]
> 
> If the hash were wide, something like SHA512, that *may* be defensible
> behaviour:  Given the lack of entropy in real-world passwords, the
> actual loss of entropy is limited, but it makes me feel very, very
> uncomfortable doing so.
> 
> It should not be overlooked that the client and server do in fact
> have a shared secret, even though the server does not keep it around
> in readble form.

I think this is a key insight, but which isn't sufficiently leveraged by 
what you suggest. In particular, this is basically the same assumption an 
augmented PAKE makes - as I posted in another mail, SRP is a particularly 
instructive example of that, by providing a trivial construction that 
permits nearly-full server offload (you still have to do the SRP modular 
arithmentic) without requiring a secure channel (at least, it does if salt 
is considered a public parameter).

> It would be possible to modify the above algorithm to something
> like:
> 
> a = password
> b = make_integer_from(cryptographic_hash(a)):
> for i N + b:
> a = cryptographic_hash(a)
> [...]
> 
> And hand the client a random number X, and have it perform a
> hardly predictable number of rounds, maybe ((X * b) mod (N + b)) or
> similar.
> 
> The server would have to store b along with the password for this
> to work.  The parameters can probably be tuned so that it only
> leaves a real replay opening, if the server happens to ask for the
> same X again.

> But would it be worth the extra complexity ?
> 
> Only if you can *always* mandate client-assist, will there be any
> benefit of the "make botnets work for it" type, and I think what
> little benefit that might give is better handled by ratelimiting
> attempts at the server side.

I disagree - this isn't an either/or proposition. In particular, I can see a 
good deal of value in having server-relief by optional under normal 
circumstances, but under high load (slashdotting, attempted DOS via 
expensive password verification) or situations that normally would trigger 
ratelimiting (multiple failed attempts in a short period of time) server-
relief could be made mandatory _on demand_.

That provides a very useful type of flexibility - under normal 
circumstances, even legacy clients which do BASIC auth with JS disabled will 
work; but when push comes to shove clients who are willing to share the load 
get priority.

> If you need to enter passwords over a non-private channel, you
> want to use *real* one-time-passwords (S/KEY or OPIE) you don't
> want some "ersatz" which gives you security "most of the time",
> but which fails fatally without any indication, if some bonehead
> somewhere f**ks up the implementation.

Or use an augmented/verifier-based PAKE, which as I noted above is very 
similar in its problem domain.

> So my conclusion was that client-assist is not worth it.
> 
> I'm willing to be convinced otherwise, but it wont be easy.
> 
> Poul-Henning
> 
> [1] We now know that's where Eve works.
Eve's a pretty common name, I think she works in more places than just the 
NSA...


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