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Date: Thu, 27 Feb 2014 18:16:40 +0400
From: Solar Designer <solar@...nwall.com>
To: discussions@...sword-hashing.net
Subject: Re: [PHC] GPU multiplication speed?

On Thu, Feb 27, 2014 at 07:20:45AM -0500, Bill Cox wrote:
> I'm trying to figure out how effective GPUs could be against
> multiplication based compute-time hardened KDFs.

At the 2 GiB memory cost setting you consider below, I guess you'd bump
into other bottlenecks first.  The multiplies might (not) make it
measurably slower.  It is hard to tell without trying.

I'd consider these things primarily at much lower memory cost settings,
on the order of 1 MiB and below.  Yes, there are use cases for these.

> A modern CPU does  a
> multiply in about 1ns.  If I am not mistaken, a GPU takes 4 or more
> clocks to do an integer multiply, and they run no faster than about
> 1GHz, meaning at least 4ns per multiply.

Where did you find this 4 cycles figure?  While it is realistic for a
multiply, note that GPUs are optimized for high throughput given high
concurrency.  Not for low latency.  If on an x86(-64) CPU it is
currently normal to run 1 or 2 threads/core, and you might get decent
performance even when you run 1, on a GPU you need at least 10 to
achieve full throughput (and this will be called differently depending
on whether you read it in NVIDIA/CUDA or OpenCL context, but it's
roughly the same concept as SMT on CPUs).  This is without multiplies -
it applies even when you do XORs and ADDs.  So if you assume your
concurrency is below (or equal to) the number of GPU's physical "cores",
then you possibly incur stalls of 10 cycles right there, without any
multiplies.  Does this increase to 40 or to 14 with multiplies, or
does it stay at 10?  You'll need to experiment to find out.

OK, here's a test for what happens with insufficient concurrency for
GPU-friendly algorithm and code without multiplies.  Optimal:

$ ./john -te -form=mscash2-opencl -dev=1
Device 1: Tahiti (AMD Radeon HD 7900 Series)
Optimal Work Group Size:256
Kernel Execution Speed (Higher is better):1.517161
Optimal Global Work Size:253952
Benchmarking: mscash2-opencl, MS Cache Hash 2 (DCC2) [PBKDF2-SHA1 OpenCL]... DONE
Raw:    102400 c/s real, 102400 c/s virtual

Concurrency limited to exactly match physical resources (2048 x 32-bit):

$ GWS=2048 ./john -te -form=mscash2-opencl -dev=1
Device 1: Tahiti (AMD Radeon HD 7900 Series)
Optimal Work Group Size:128
Kernel Execution Speed (Higher is better):1.517110
Benchmarking: mscash2-opencl, MS Cache Hash 2 (DCC2) [PBKDF2-SHA1 OpenCL]... DONE
Raw:    20277 c/s real, 682666 c/s virtual

OK, only a 5x hit here, not the 10x I mentioned above.  So while
253952/2048 = 124x concurrency was found optimal by the program in this
case, and it is 10x+ per AMD docs, not having any concurrency greater
than available physical resources has only a 5x hit here, for this card
(HD 7970 at stock clocks, meaning 925 MHz core) and this algorithm and
code.  Yet 5x is significant - more so than the presumed 1 vs. 3+ cycles
difference for ADD vs. MUL.

BTW, this is somewhat similar on Xeon Phi, just to a smaller extent: it
is capable of up to 4 threads/core, and it requires at least 2
threads/core for optimal performance, even with instructions that you'd
normally expect to complete in 1 cycle each.  So in this sense Xeon Phi
is half way between a CPU and a GPU.  Similar things are also observed
on UltraSPARC T1 (4 threads/core) and later (8 threads/core), where
running almost the maximum number of supported hardware threads is
essential to achieving full performance, even for trivial integer code.

Regarding the clock rate, you're right - modern GPUs have it at around
1 GHz.  [ Older NVIDIA GPUs (circa 2010) ran the shaders (which is what's
relevant here) at double the core clock, so e.g. the vendor overclocked
GTX 570 we're using for some JtR benchmarks runs at 1.6 GHz - but it's
also a lot smaller than NVIDIA's latest GPUs. ]

In terms of throughput, today's CPUs and GPUs can all be expected to do
one multiply or multiply-add (if available) per SIMD lane per cycle, for
up to whatever SIMD multipliers size they have in hardware in sufficient
quantity (as you found, for some GPUs it's 24x24).  Bigger may be much
slower, even in otherwise optimal conditions.

(BTW, I am still playing with 32x32->64 as it's suitable for both scalar
and SIMD on both current x86(-64) and recent ARM, and considering that
it's roughly 2x the circuit size of 32x32->32 in ASIC.  64x64->64 would
be 2x bigger yet, but it's unfriendly to some relevant CPUs/modes.)

> If a defender hashes his password using 2GiB in 0.5 seconds on his PC
> in a multiplication limited loop (easily done on 1 thread on a 3GHz+
> Sandy Bridge, Ivy Bridge, or Haswell CPU and a single bank of 1,666MHz
> DDR3 RAM), and an attacker has an 8GiB graphics card (do they sell
> bigger?),

NVIDIA has Tesla K40 with 12 GB, AMD is planning a revision of FirePro
S10000 with 12 GB.

http://www.nvidia.com/object/tesla-servers.html

Xeon Phi is available with 16 GB.

> then the attacker could only do 2 guesses in parallel, and
> each guess will take 4 times longer, at about 2 seconds per guess, or
> 1 guesses per second total throughput.  That's half what the CPU can
> do.

Yes, and if you're not memory-bound the performance hit may be even
bigger.  However, if you're memory-bound, then the improved memory
bandwidth may give advantage to GPUs.

So, yes, having some computation so that you don't bump solely into the
memory bandwidth, but also into compute latency on CPUs, is good to
discourage GPUs.

The multiplies specifically don't matter as much as they do against
ASICs and FPGAs, but are good to use nevertheless.  There's probably
some latency hardening advantage over ADDs even for GPUs, but it might
not be much.  This is assuming that you do small multiplies; bigger
ones might be much slower on specific GPUs.

> Are my numbers right?  My Google-fu is failing me this morning.  I
> could not find a table of NVDA or ATI GPU instruction latencies.  I
> did find one post suggesting to use 24x24 multiplication because it's
> only 4 clocks, but there was no mention of 32x32 latencies.

Oh, that's curious.  As far as I can tell, information on instruction
latencies on GPUs is generally not published, and it doesn't make as
much sense as it would on CPUs given that higher concurrency needs to be
maintained for optimal performance anyway.

Alexander

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