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Date: Tue, 04 Mar 2014 04:04:30 +0000
From: Samuel Neves <>
Subject: Re: [PHC] wider integer multiply on 32-bit x86

On 04-03-2014 02:36, Solar Designer wrote:
> On Mon, Mar 03, 2014 at 06:23:32PM -0800, Andy Lutomirski wrote:
>> On Mon, Mar 3, 2014 at 6:13 PM, Solar Designer <> wrote:
>>> I think 4 instructions, including the loads and stores, for a 63x63->63
>>> multiply is rather good.  Without this trick, it'd take 4 _multiplies_
>>> to implement the equivalent via 32x32->32 (or perhaps 3 multiplies if we
>>> also use the 32x32->64).  Some bigint library could use this trick,
>>> perhaps for some nice speedup on those older CPUs/builds (does any use
>>> it already?)
>> I think that Poly1305 and related things use a similar trick, at least
>> on some architectures.
> I thought Poly1305 used IEEE double, so up to 53-bit only, and it's not
> a bigint library.  But yes, it's similar.

Poly1305 used the full x86 64-bit mantissa [1, Section 4]. So did
curve25519 [2]. According to Agner Fog, the floating-point and integer
multipliers in the Pentium III share the same circuitry (and the
floating-point multiplication has one extra cycle of latency), so the
only advantage here would appear to be register usage. Register renaming
does help there.

By the way, in the 63x63 -> 63 case the floating-point unit would
actually be computing the most-significant bits of the product, not the
least-significant. This could be used to compute the xor of both product
halves relatively quickly, with the integer multiplier computing the
lower part, while the floating-point multiplier would compute the higher
part. Like so (warning: not thoroughly tested, but seems to work):

    // Compute 63x63 product, xor high half with low half
    static inline uint64_t fp_mul_hilo(uint64_t a, uint64_t b)
        static const long double twom63 =
        static const uint16_t ctrl = 0x1f7f; // 64-bit mantissa, round to 0
        uint64_t high;
        __asm__ __volatile__
            "fldcw   %4\n\t" // Only needed for setup, really
            "fildll  %1\n\t"
            "fildll  %2\n\t"
            "fmulp     \n\t"
            "fldt    %3\n\t"
            "fmulp     \n\t"
            "fistpll %0\n\t"
            : "=m" (high)
            : "m" (a), "m" (b), "m" (twom63), "m" (ctrl)
        return high ^ ((a * b) & 0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFULL);

To be honest, though, I don't think using floating-point is worth it.
The only chip where floating-point convincingly beat integer was the AMD
K7, where you could dispatch a floating-point multiplication every
cycle, but an integer one only once every 3 cycles.


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