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Date: Fri, 05 Sep 2014 13:40:45 -0400
From: Bill Cox <waywardgeek@...hershed.org>
To: discussions@...sword-hashing.net
Subject: Re: [PHC] A review per day - Makwa

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I am finding difficult to skip Makwa, since I think it has such
potential.  Makwa is in a category where the code doesn't matter.  It
could totally suck, and that would be OK.  So long as the *idea* is
solid, it should move forward.  However, the code does not suck.  It
looks decent, though I have no intention of doing a careful code
review right now.

Instead of moving on, I am busy trying to convince myself that Makwa
is secure from a mathematical point of view.

The concern I am working through right now is trying to convince
myself that Makwa will have good long cycle lengths when squaring over
and over, with effectively zero chance of getting a weak cycle where
finding the square root is many times easier.

Makwa chooses random large primes of similar size that are "safe
primes" (if it doesn't, it needs to!), and that are congruent to 3 mod 4.

My theory is that we want p and q to be "good" primes, in that the
squaring group will contain all residues other than 1.  That would be
(p-1)/2 - 1 elements.  About half of all safe primes congruent to 3
mod 4 seem to have this property.  The other half don't.

Here's some basic data about the "good" and "bad" safe primes below
1000 that are congruent to 3 mod 4:

Good primes: 7 11 23 59 107 167 263 347 359 587 839 887 983
Bad primes: 47 83 179 227 383 467 479 503 563 719 863

Good prime 7:  Order 3 numMaxOrder 2
Good prime 11:  Order 5 numMaxOrder 4
Good prime 23:  Order 11 numMaxOrder 10
Good prime 59:  Order 29 numMaxOrder 28
Good prime 107:  Order 53 numMaxOrder 52
Good prime 167:  Order 83 numMaxOrder 82
Good prime 263:  Order 131 numMaxOrder 130
Good prime 347:  Order 173 numMaxOrder 172
Good prime 359:  Order 179 numMaxOrder 178
Good prime 587:  Order 293 numMaxOrder 292
Good prime 839:  Order 419 numMaxOrder 418
Good prime 887:  Order 443 numMaxOrder 442
Good prime 983:  Order 491 numMaxOrder 490

Bad prime 47:  Order 12 numMaxOrder 22
Bad prime 83:  Order 21 numMaxOrder 40
Bad prime 179:  Order 12 numMaxOrder 88
Bad prime 227:  Order 29 numMaxOrder 112
Bad prime 383:  Order 96 numMaxOrder 190
Bad prime 467:  Order 30 numMaxOrder 232
Bad prime 479:  Order 120 numMaxOrder 238
Bad prime 503:  Order 51 numMaxOrder 250
Bad prime 563:  Order 71 numMaxOrder 280
Bad prime 719:  Order 180 numMaxOrder 358
Bad prime 863:  Order 44 numMaxOrder 430

Is there any fast way to determine if a prime is a "good" vs "bad" prime?

Note that the squaring sub-groups can have significantly lower order
for "bad" primes.  This does not exactly translate to the typical
squaring group orders for Blum integers, but from my testing in
Python, there is a strong correlation with higher group orders when
when we start with "good" primes.

A property that these groups share is that the order of any particular
sub-group starting with any residue of n minus 1 divides numMaxOrder.
 NumMaxOrder is always (p-3)/2, which is even because p is = 3 mod 4.
 If we just want to avoid the worst bad primes, we could require that
(p-3)/4 be equal to twice a prime.

Here's "good" primes up to 10,000:

7, 11, 23, 59, 107, 167, 263, 347, 359, 587, 839, 887, 983, 1019,
1307, 1319, 2039, 2459, 2903, 2999, 3467, 3803, 3863, 3947, 4139,
4283, 4679, 4919, 5099, 5387, 5399, 5483, 5639, 5879, 5927, 6599,
6827, 6983, 7079, 7559, 7607, 7703, 8039, 8699, 8747

Here's "bad" primes up to 10,000:

47, 83, 179, 227, 383, 467, 479, 503, 563, 719, 863, 1187, 1283, 1367,
1439, 1487, 1523, 1619, 1823, 1907, 2027, 2063, 2099, 2207, 2447,
2579, 2819, 2879, 2963, 3023, 3119, 3167, 3203, 3623, 3779, 4007,
4079, 4127, 4259, 4547, 4703, 4787, 4799, 5087, 5507, 5807, 5939,
6047, 6659, 6719, 6779, 6899, 7187, 7247, 7523, 7643, 7727, 7823,
8147, 8423, 8543, 8783, 8819, 8963, 9467, 9587, 9743, 9839, 9887

Here's 10 random "good" runs using "good" primes:

Finding totals for 5879 5099
Average = 1 , distribution = {1: 3, 2938: 5876, 287924: 7486024, 2548:
5096} , chance of sub-optimal = 0.146391909616 %
Finding totals for 5483 5399
Average = 1 , distribution = {1: 3, 2698: 5396, 2740: 5480, 3696260:
7392520} , chance of sub-optimal = 0.146946017633 %
Finding totals for 6983 4139
Average = 1 , distribution = {1: 3, 3490: 6980, 3608660: 7217320,
2068: 4136} , chance of sub-optimal = 0.153822976164 %
Finding totals for 5099 6983
Average = 1 , distribution = {1: 3, 3490: 6980, 4446260: 8892520,
2548: 5096} , chance of sub-optimal = 0.135649005643 %
Finding totals for 5927 7559
Average = 1 , distribution = {1: 3, 5595218: 11190436, 3778: 7556,
2962: 5924} , chance of sub-optimal = 0.120341819679 %
Finding totals for 7703 4679
Average = 1 , distribution = {1: 3, 3850: 7700, 2338: 4676, 642950:
9001300} , chance of sub-optimal = 0.137335709426 %
Finding totals for 3863 5483
Average = 1 , distribution = {1: 3, 1930: 3860, 2740: 5480, 528820:
5288200} , chance of sub-optimal = 0.176364778917 %
Finding totals for 7079 5099
Average = 1 , distribution = {1: 3, 3538: 7076, 4507412: 9014824,
2548: 5096} , chance of sub-optimal = 0.134873173244 %
Finding totals for 8747 5927
Average = 1 , distribution = {1: 3, 2962: 5924, 6474932: 12949864,
4372: 8744} , chance of sub-optimal = 0.113162562329 %

The number before the : in the total number of residues in cycles with
this length.

Here's 10 random "bad runs using "bad" primes:

Finding totals for 6779 8819
Average = 1 , distribution = {1: 3, 266684: 14934304, 484: 6776, 551:
8816} , chance of sub-optimal = 0.104315086008 %
Finding totals for 4259 7523
Average = 1 , distribution = {1: 3, 188: 7520, 25004: 8001280, 532:
4256} , chance of sub-optimal = 0.146997544883 %
Finding totals for 5807 3779
Average = 1 , distribution = {684872: 5478976, 1: 3, 1451: 5804, 472:
3776} , chance of sub-optimal = 0.174599562472 %
Finding totals for 4799 7643
Average = 1 , distribution = {1: 3, 916036: 9160360, 764: 7640, 1199:
4796} , chance of sub-optimal = 0.135607462891 %
Finding totals for 5807 9839
Average = 1 , distribution = {3568009: 14272036, 1451: 5804, 2459:
9836, 1: 3} , chance of sub-optimal = 0.109485942398 %
Finding totals for 4127 9743
Average = 1 , distribution = {502097: 10041940, 1031: 4124, 487: 9740,
1: 3} , chance of sub-optimal = 0.137900419131 %
Finding totals for 4007 8819
Average = 1 , distribution = {1: 3, 157586: 8824816, 286: 4004, 551:
8816} , chance of sub-optimal = 0.145095313352 %
Finding totals for 8423 5507
Average = 1 , distribution = {579296: 11585920, 1: 3, 842: 8420, 1376:
5504} , chance of sub-optimal = 0.120061928403 %
Finding totals for 6659 9467
Average = 1 , distribution = {11648: 15748096, 1: 3, 1664: 6656, 364:
9464} , chance of sub-optimal = 0.102275919917 %
Finding totals for 7187 4127
Average = 1 , distribution = {1: 3, 1851676: 7406704, 1796: 7184,
1031: 4124} , chance of sub-optimal = 0.152480144621 %

The bad run has quite a bit lower cycle lengths on average.  I've seen
runs with bad primes where the max cycle lengths were lower than p and q.

Can anyone point me to the relavant literature so I don't keep working
on stuff that's well known?

Thanks,
Bill
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