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Date: Wed, 10 Sep 2014 22:41:29 -0700
From: Alex Elsayed <eternaleye@...il.com>
To: discussions@...sword-hashing.net
Subject: Re: Re: Re: Re: Re: Re: Second factor (was A review per day - Schvrch)

Andy Lutomirski wrote:

> On Wed, Sep 3, 2014 at 4:15 PM, Alex Elsayed
> <eternaleye@...il.com> wrote:
>> Andy Lutomirski wrote:
>>
>>> On Wed, Sep 3, 2014 at 3:45 PM, Alex Elsayed
>>> <eternaleye@...il.com> wrote:
>>>> Andy Lutomirski wrote:
>>>>
>>>>> On Wed, Sep 3, 2014 at 3:29 PM, Alex Elsayed
>>>>> <eternaleye@...il.com> wrote:
>>>>>> Besides, why store _anything_ on the user's computer? The user types
>>>>>> in N, and then P, and neither has any related data stored anywhere on
>>>>>> the computer; the less you process P the less time it spends resident
>>>>>> in memory as well. Treat it like a hot potato and hand it straight to
>>>>>> the token.
>>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> Because I want to trust my token as little as possible.
>>>>
>>>> My point is it doesn't actually trust your token any less.
>>>>
>>>> Handing your token F(P) instead of P doesn't matter, because F(P) is
>>>> still sufficient for a malicious token to never ask again if it stores
>>>> it - and a malicious token disclosing P rather than F(P) only matters
>>>> if your password hygiene is really terrible (reuse, etc).
>>>>
>>>> Besides, the token _does_ rely on you relaying the second exchange for
>>>> it - if it tries to do an exchange when you didn't _initiate_ an
>>>> exchange, that's a 'KILL IT WITH FIRE' indicator; that leaves only that
>>>> it surreptitiously stores what you give it and waits for someone to
>>>> steal it from you.
>>>
>>> Let me try to say it more precisely.  I want a fourth security
>>> requirement: even if the token is actively malicious (e.g. records
>>> things it shouldn't, sends maliciously incorrect output, and leaks
>>> things to <insert government agency here>), then the protocol should
>>> still be as secure as either password-authenticated or
>>> encrypted-key-authenticated protocols, depending on whether the user
>>> stores a key file on his/her hard drive.
>>>
>>> I think that my protocol achieves this, or at least tries to.  Yours
>>> seems to be completely insecure in this threat model.
>>
>> Mm, I see.
>>
>>> Yours might be fixable for this purpose by having the user do a second
>>> PAKE exchange with the server, protected by the output of the first
>>> one.  This requires more round trips than my approach.
>>
>> Actually, another option is to run step 4 in _parallel_ with a PAKE
>> exchange directly between U and A. Since the exchanges are the same, this
>> results (assuming some bundling) in a doubling of message _size_ (and the
>> server must store two verifiers), but not of the _number_ of messages.
>>
>> At that point, though, you might as well not pass the token anything (or
>> pass it public data like the name of the service you're authenticating
>> to), again obviating the need for storing anything on disk while
>> satisfying the additional constraint unconditionally.
> 
> Hmm, interesting.  I had assumed that a secure protocol involving
> password tokens needed some mechanism for authenticating the user to
> the token to prevent the token from being useful if stolen.  But maybe
> this is entirely unnecessary.
> 
> On the other hand, it should also be impossible for a server and a
> stolen user's computer to do an offline dictionary attack without
> access to the token.  I think that two parallel augmented PAKE runs
> doesn't have this property.  This might be fixable by storing the
> client computer's key share in some form that can only be decrypted
> with access to the token (e.g. take the secret PAKE key, encrypt it
> against the token's secret, and encrypt *that* against the password).
> 
> Hmm.  Maybe I should try to write this stuff down and post it to IACR.
> 
>>
>> Sadly, this loses the property from the original scheme that the server
>> doesn't need to even know that a token is in use - a PAKE exchange
>> between U and A appears the same to A as the token protocol.
>>
>> It would also require care on the part of A to avoid timing leaks - it'd
>> need to check both verifiers even if one failed.
>>
> 
> It looks like the catid tabby PAKE might be compatible with a secret
> sharing approach like in my earlier email.  It has no security proof,
> though.
> 
> --Andy

Just encountered this, which is fascinating and potentially relevant:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4009152/

In particular, if you treat the protocol server and client as the PAKE 
'clients', with the token as the PAKE 'server', I think it qualifies for 
most of the desiderata you listed.

The sole "maybe" is that one could dictionary-test passwords by querying the 
token, but if the token insists that the two PAKE exchanges in step 1 
operate in lockstep that is resolved.

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