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Date: Thu, 25 Jun 2015 03:17:18 +0100
From: Peter Maxwell <peter@...icient.co.uk>
To: "discussions@...sword-hashing.net" <discussions@...sword-hashing.net>
Subject: Re: [PHC] Why protect against side channel attacks

On 25 June 2015 at 02:15, Bill Cox <waywardgeek@...il.com> wrote:

> On Wed, Jun 24, 2015 at 5:40 PM, Peter Maxwell <peter@...icient.co.uk>
> wrote:
>
>> ​Yeah, but on balance a constant-time implementation is still preferable
>> to even the remote possibility of opening up a new attack vector that
>> hadn't existed before... would be somewhat embarrassing for the PHC if a
>> few years down the line ​it turned out that password data could be
>> recovered from a local timing attack that an unsalted md5 password hash
>> isn't vulnerable to :-)
>>
>
> I think you have a common point of view, which is reasonable until certain
> additional data is known.
>

Ok, please enlighten us as to this "certain additional data".



>
> ​Admittedly, I'm still not convinced on the utility of most memory-hard
>> PDFs anyway.  Put it this way, I'm working on a project just now that may
>> end-up serving a reasonably high load of login requests and will choose
>> something *far* more light-weight for the password hash than has been
>> generally proposed on this list -- memory and compute cycles aren't free.
>> You get far more bang for your buck by giving users a swift swift kick up
>> the rear-end and forcing them to pick marginally better passwords.
>>
>
> First, forcing users to pick difficult to remember passwords doesn't
> work.  Just Google it.  There's lot's of research backing this up.  You can
> require 10 character passwords, upper case, lower case, digits, and
> punctuation, and what you get is a ton of Password1!  Worse, users wont
> remember Password1!, because they'll be trying password, and when that
> doesn't work, they'll reset their password and go through that 5-minute
> e-mail process, just to choose Password1! again when they see all the crazy
> rules.  They really enjoy doing that several times a week :-p
>
> Regardless of the password rules, your median user will pick passwords
> that are typically found in a dictionary containing somewhere from 2^21 to
> 2^26 entries.  There's no way to protect these users with just password
> hashing, and there seems to be no good way to force these users to choose
> better passwords.
>
> I recommend you avoid angering your users and marketing department, and
> just allow users to use passwords they can remember.  If you need more
> security, add layers, such as a pin, security question, track their MACs
> and other signals, and for any real security, add a second factor, such as
> an SMS message to their phone.
>
> If you can't afford the compute effort required by a modern password
> hashing algorithm like Scrypt, then secure your password hashes with
> additional layers.  For example, consider keeping your salt separate from
> your password hashes.  If you can afford a decryption oracle server and the
> RPC latency, consider having a well secured oracle that hashes in it's
> secret key into the password hash before writing it to the disk.  That way,
> an attacker with the database also needs the oracle's key to make any use
> of the database.
>
> Or you can just do what everyone else always does, and attempt to make
> users choose really strong passwords.  Good luck with that :-)
>


At the risk of invoking an adage about grandmothers and eggs, lets for a
just a wee moment assume that I used to earn a living doing this sort of
thing and was reasonably good at my job, i.e. I'm only too well aware of
how to apply other security measures.  That's not the crux of the argument
though.

The point is that most people/companies/etc can't afford to assign the
lions's share of their computing resources to hashing passwords.  The heavy
memory-intensive schemes that have been proposed might ok for large
companies like Sony, etc, but for the most part, no.   So most people will
look to the next low hanging fruit to reduce their security risk, I used
password policy as an example (and, yes, I still do generally require a
minimum character count because that is low hanging fruit).

If the PHC winner can't provide an improvement on existing schemes on
minimum resources it's either because we've collectively failed or it just
cannot be done, probably the latter.  For the applied mathematicians among
us, we may have reached a global minima on the optimization problem.

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