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Date: Fri, 3 Jul 2015 05:00:37 -0700
From: Bill Cox <waywardgeek@...il.com>
To: "discussions@...sword-hashing.net" <discussions@...sword-hashing.net>
Subject: Re: [PHC] Password hashing as a self-overwriting Turing machine;
 Protection of keys in SSH

On Thu, Jul 2, 2015 at 8:41 AM, denis bider <pwhashing@...isbider.com>
wrote:

> With respect to my design - I would indeed like to have a greater number
> of operations than 4, but I had a lack of ideas about other good
> constructions that would not have wildly differing costs, and would
> preserve entropy. I would have liked CPU AES, but availability in hardware
> and ease of portability seem troublesome. This ought to be better in 5-10
> years.
>

Side channel resistance is over-emphasized on this list.  Neither bcrypt or
scrypt is side-channel resistant, yet they are excellent algorithms
(particularly scrypt).  If implementing a new algorithm based on executing
many CPU instructions, I'd focus on the common ALU operations, conditional
branching, and memory access.  You can use any data operation and turn it
into a reversible operation if you mix in the result into memory in a
reversible way.  For example, AND is not reversible, but this is:

    mem[a] += mem[b] & mem[c];

The C operator list is a good list of operations.  CPUs generally implement
them fast.


> I see your point about the multiply-and-modulo operation, and how this can
> cause cache-timing leakage if the CPU optimizes it away when the result is
> not used. I see this as a tradeoff - I wanted to have the
> multiply-and-modulo because it's one of a few entropy-preserving operations
> I can think of that really favor a 64-bit CPU.
>

I agree. 64 bit multiplies even slow down GPUs.  It also is the only
operation that requires a non-trivial amount of silicon.


> With regard to parallelism - I agree there's a clear and decisive
> advantage to this on the client, where cores are most often going unused.
> For use on the server, the advantages are less apparent: for a busy server,
> CPU cost is CPU cost, whether it's distributed 1*8 or 8*1. My design
> targets specifically the niche of an x64 server that cannot offload
> password hashing on the client, and needs to use an algorithm with a
> reasonable CPU and memory footprint.
>

I agree, servers do not benefit from multi-threading.  Server-side is a
very difficult problem, partly because servers lack resources to do memory
hard hashing in a way that might begin to make typical passwords secure.
No matter what algorithm you use, a 1ms hash is not strong enough to secure
most passwords.  Additional steps must be taken server-side, such as
hashing in a secret master password, secondary secret salt, etc.

For large corporations, I favor the authentication server concept.
Yescrypt supports hashing in data from a large ROM, which provides some
additional security.  It's clearly the best authentication server algorithm
in the competition, for a lot of reasons.  I think it was primarily
optimized for this use case, though it scales well from a few KiB to many
GiB hashing, and works well client-side, server-side, etc.  The only
downside is all that flexibility comes with complexity.


> With regard to ASIC and FPGA optimization: I think making an effort to
> defend against this, and succeeding to *some* extent, is important.
> However, maximizing such defense would matter primarily:
>
> - For the most critical of passwords, which might motivate someone to
> invest tens/hundreds of thousands of USD (for FPGA) or millions (for ASIC)
> into cracking a class of passwords. (Arguably, if a class of passwords is
> *that* important, it ought to be complex enough that even a single SHA-256
> would protect it.)
>

I agree.  The common password hacker has access to either a botnet or GPU
farm at most.  A really good custom ASIC would cost millions of dollars to
produce.

I focused on ASIC resistance because:

1) I understand this threat better than I understand GPUs
2) If you defend well against ASICs, then you defend well against any kind
of hardware acceleration any attacker might throw at it using today's
silicon.
3) The MiB (Men in Black) build custom ASICs for crypto all the time, I
suspect.
4) Even if you do not care to defend against the MiB, if you do, you
automatically defend well against the rest of the world's hackers.

However, you don't _have_ to defend well against ASICs to have a good
algorithm.  Bcrypt has far lower ASIC defense than Scrypt, for example.
It's really only good at GPU defense, and only for today's GPUs.


> - For a proof-of-work hash for a digital currency that wants to encourage
> mining by casual enthusiasts, and have them be competitive with moneyed
> investors. Litecoin made the original attempt with scrypt, which kinda fell
> through. Vertcoin now uses Lyra2RE.
>

Crypto-currencies should use a variant of Momentum
<http://www.hashcash.org/papers/momentum.pdf>, instead of Lyra2RE or
similar, IMO.  The verification time is constant ant fast, allowing rapid
block-chain verification compared to Lyra2RE.

It probably should be modified a bit to make it more CPU friendly vs other
hardware, but the idea seems sound.


> For everyday passwords, it seems we're defending primarily against hackers
> with botnets. Those have access primarily to commodity hardware they might
> purchase themselves, and other people's hardware to which they have
> surreptitious access. I can imagine them having significant GPU power at
> their disposal; possibly FPGA, if a well-to-do hacker is into that as a
> hobby; but access to custom ASICs seems very unlikely.
>
> Having written that, though - it comes to mind that China is an attacker
> who is interested in commercial targets, is beyond the law, and is someone
> we need to be defending against as well. Hmm.
>

Yep.  China quite likely will implement an ASIC farm based password cracker
to crack down on their own people, and the market for these ASICs to
governments in general may create a market need that will quickly be filled.

Unfortunately, the MiB includes every good and bad government.  ASIC
resistance, IMO, means defending against the MiB.


> My other point is that there's value in variety. No one should use weak
> algorithms, by any means. However, if there's a single widely used strong
> algorithm, and it's used for everything from protection of common passwords
> to proof of work for a digital currency, *eventually* there may be cheap
> ASICs everywhere for that algorithm, such as there are now for SHA-256. In
> that case, an application may be better off using a different algorithm,
> just because there aren't readily available ASICs for it.
>

One of the MiB's main tools is being willing to spend far more on cracking
electronic encryption than any sane adversary would guess.  If we used 100
different algorithms, I think we'd simply see the MiB build 100 different
ASICs.  My preference is to focus on one algorithm that is MiB resistant -
a feature rarely talked about here.

In order for this not to happen with PHC winners, they would have to be
> *strongly* resistant to more cost-effective implementation in ASIC. Do you
> believe any of the candidates truly resist this, if the stakes are high
> enough? Would you say this is the case for Yescrypt, Lyra2, or Argon2d? If
> yes - what properties of these algorithms do you think are critical in this?
>

An ASIC will never do what Intel/AMD CPUs do more cost effectively.  The
best defensive algorithm vs ASICs would have to be more like BusyBeaver,
and execute actual random machine code, using the full memory stack and a
lot of memory.

However, Yescrypt and Lyra2 got pretty close - especially Yescrypt.  I
think TwoCats actually had the strongest ASIC defense on Intel CPUs because
of marginally more efficient multiplication chains, but Yescrypt is very
close.  They are good enough for defense against the MiB, I think.

On the other hand, cryto-currency miners would prefer a proof-of-work that
favored CPUs, so that ASIC farms would not ruin the party.  The great thing
about CPU mining is that everyone already has one, which encourages lots of
individuals to participate.  The needs of crypto-currencies is somewhat
different than password hashing.  For example, there's no worry about
side-channel attacks against miners.

With respect to password hashing in SSH, you are correct; the widely used
> methods are poor. But:
>
> (a) When transferring private keys between implementations, the main
> obstacle is compatibility - if strong password hashing is to be used, both
> sides have to agree on the method. The dominant implementation dictates the
> most common interchange format; for client keys, this means PuTTY and
> OpenSSH.
>

Yeah... compatibility remains one of the strongest reasons for poor
security.  It's a real bummer.


> (b) When encrypting private keys locally, the main obstacle is
> practicality. People often use public key authentication because they do
> not want to use a password. A large proportion of users, therefore, will
> not encrypt a private key, and this has to be supported.
>

What we need to do is offer $5 USB keys that you have to touch to log in.
It would just prove that it still has possession of a hardware backed
secret key.  That could be used for more secure access to web sites, or
ssh.  We do this now days at Google.  It works great.  I think everyone
should use them, and for the massive improvement in security, I suspect
many people would fork over the $5, and live with the hassle of touching
their computers once per login.


> (c) There's also no way to truly encrypt a key that must be used by an
> automated process. Anything that runs unattended must be able to access
> credentials without user input.
>

I've done this a few times, and had to use password-less ssh keys.  In
those cases, I needed to access one machine from another to periodically
run some job.  If we had the $5 USB key, the remote machine could verify
that the hardware with the secret key is on the other end of the line,
without requiring a physical touch.  The same hardware should be used for
both cases.


> You are right that we could do more in case (a) when our own interchange
> format is used, and in case (b) when the user chooses to encrypt the
> private key. In this case, the most suitable password hashing function
> would be something other than BusyBeaver; something with threads, a larger
> CPU cost, and a larger memory footprint. I will recommend that we implement
> one of the PHC winners for this purpose, when they are chosen.
>

That's excellent!  For some reason, the more dominant ssh tools continue to
lag behind in password security.  It would be great to see some improvement.

Bill

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