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Date:	Fri, 25 Sep 2015 12:48:44 -0400
From:	Theodore Ts'o <tytso@....edu>
To:	Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@...gle.com>
Cc:	Theodore Tso <tytso@...gle.com>,
	Andreas Dilger <adilger.kernel@...ger.ca>,
	linux-ext4@...r.kernel.org,
	Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@...gle.com>,
	ktsan@...glegroups.com
Subject: Re: Help to explain a data race in ext4_da_invalidatepage

On Fri, Sep 18, 2015 at 02:25:35PM +0200, Dmitry Vyukov wrote:
> Hello,
> 
> We are working on a data race detector for kernel,
> KernelThreadSanitizer (https://github.com/google/ktsan) and got the
> following race report (on 4.2. rc2). My ext4-fu is not strong enough
> to prove or disprove whether it is a real issue or a bug in the tool.
> 
> I will appreciate if you explain how the following memory accesses are
> supposed to be synchronized (not happen concurrently).

They are synchronized by the fact that the page is locked.  So here:

>  [<ffffffff811e503b>] truncate_inode_pages_range+0x20b/0x8e0 mm/truncate.c:280

and here:

>  [<ffffffff81338520>] mpage_prepare_extent_to_map+0x450/0x500 fs/ext4/inode.c:2351 (discriminator 2)

We iterate over a series of pages we make sure that before we call
truncate_inode_page() (in the first loop) and mpage_process_page_bufs
(in the second loop), we make sure that (a) the page is locked, and
(b) it is not under writeback.

In the first loop, we use a trylock_page() and skip the page if it is
locked (or if it is under writeback).  In the second loop we use
lock_page(), and if we are doing a synchronous writeback, we will use
wait_on_page_writeback() to make sure the page is no longer writeback
before proceeding.  (The reason why we don't just skip the page is
that there is always a chance that while the page is getting written
to disk, the page could have gotten dirtied again --- at least for
devices that don't require stable page writes.)

In any case, we rely on lock_page() to provide synchronization --- and
I'm guessing that perhaps KernelThreadSynchronizer wasn't taught that
lock_page(), unlock_page(), and trylock_page() were synchronization
primitives?

Or maybe KernelThreadSynchronizer knew about lock_page() and
unlock_page() implementations in mm/filemap.c, but wasn't aware of the
trylock_page() implementation include/linux/pagemap.h?

Cheers,

					- Ted
					
> ThreadSanitizer: data-race in kmem_cache_free
> 
> Write at 0xffff8800bb412e70 of size 8 by thread 3050 on CPU 9:
>  [<     inline     >] __cache_free mm/slab.c:3384
>  [<ffffffff812451f2>] kmem_cache_free+0x92/0x480 mm/slab.c:3562
>  [<ffffffff812b7800>] free_buffer_head+0x40/0x70 fs/buffer.c:3363
>  [<ffffffff812b922d>] try_to_free_buffers+0xcd/0x120 fs/buffer.c:3278
> (discriminator 1)
>  [<ffffffff813b7da9>] jbd2_journal_try_to_free_buffers+0x109/0x190
> fs/jbd2/transaction.c:1960
>  [<ffffffff8133666f>] ext4_releasepage+0x9f/0x120 fs/ext4/inode.c:2995
>  [<ffffffff811cbf3b>] try_to_release_page+0x6b/0x90 mm/filemap.c:2688
>  [<ffffffff812b885e>] block_invalidatepage+0x16e/0x1c0 fs/buffer.c:1576
>  [<ffffffff813375e1>] ext4_invalidatepage+0x81/0x100
> fs/ext4/inode.c:2957 (discriminator 11)
>  [<ffffffff81338a70>] ext4_da_invalidatepage+0x50/0x540 fs/ext4/inode.c:2802
>  [<     inline     >] do_invalidatepage mm/truncate.c:92
>  [<     inline     >] truncate_complete_page mm/truncate.c:112
>  [<ffffffff811e4dae>] truncate_inode_page+0xde/0xe0 mm/truncate.c:156
>  [<ffffffff811e503b>] truncate_inode_pages_range+0x20b/0x8e0 mm/truncate.c:280
>  [<     inline     >] truncate_inode_pages mm/truncate.c:390
>  [<ffffffff811e585c>] truncate_pagecache+0x5c/0x80 mm/truncate.c:685
>  [<ffffffff81344032>] ext4_setattr+0x682/0xcd0 fs/ext4/inode.c:4768
>  [<ffffffff8129034d>] notify_change+0x3ed/0x570 fs/attr.c:266
>  [<ffffffff8125d0a2>] do_truncate+0xb2/0x110 fs/open.c:63
>  [<ffffffff8125d592>] do_sys_ftruncate.constprop.16+0x182/0x1f0 fs/open.c:193
>  [<     inline     >] C_SYSC_ftruncate fs/open.c:209
>  [<ffffffff8125d6d0>] compat_SyS_ftruncate+0x20/0x30 fs/open.c:207
>  [<ffffffff81ee681a>] ia32_do_call+0x1b/0x25
> arch/x86/entry/entry_64_compat.S:505
> 
> Previous read at 0xffff8800bb412e70 of size 8 by thread 829 on CPU 0:
>  [<ffffffff813379f2>] mpage_process_page_bufs+0x202/0x220 fs/ext4/inode.c:1973
>  [<ffffffff81338520>] mpage_prepare_extent_to_map+0x450/0x500
> fs/ext4/inode.c:2351 (discriminator 2)
>  [<ffffffff8133ffaa>] ext4_writepages+0x64a/0x15e0 fs/ext4/inode.c:2505
>  [<ffffffff811e0453>] do_writepages+0x53/0x80 mm/page-writeback.c:2332
>  [<ffffffff812aac2f>] __writeback_single_inode+0x7f/0x510
> fs/fs-writeback.c:1259 (discriminator 3)
>  [<ffffffff812ab5b8>] writeback_sb_inodes+0x4f8/0x720 fs/fs-writeback.c:1516
>  [<ffffffff812ab8a4>] __writeback_inodes_wb+0xc4/0x100 fs/fs-writeback.c:1562
>  [<ffffffff812abc8c>] wb_writeback+0x3ac/0x440 fs/fs-writeback.c:1666
>  [<     inline     >] wb_check_background_flush fs/fs-writeback.c:1746
>  [<     inline     >] wb_do_writeback fs/fs-writeback.c:1824
>  [<ffffffff812ac9df>] wb_workfn+0x43f/0x7e0 fs/fs-writeback.c:1852
>  [<ffffffff810b1d6e>] process_one_work+0x47e/0x930 kernel/workqueue.c:2036
>  [<ffffffff810b22d0>] worker_thread+0xb0/0x900 kernel/workqueue.c:2170
>  [<ffffffff810bba40>] kthread+0x150/0x170 kernel/kthread.c:209
>  [<ffffffff81ee420f>] ret_from_fork+0x3f/0x70 arch/x86/entry/entry_64.S:529
> 
> Mutexes locked by thread 3050:
> Mutex 469545 is locked here:
>  [<ffffffff81ee0407>] mutex_lock+0x57/0x70 kernel/locking/mutex.c:108
>  [<ffffffff8125d094>] do_truncate+0xa4/0x110 fs/open.c:61
>  [<ffffffff8125d592>] do_sys_ftruncate.constprop.16+0x182/0x1f0 fs/open.c:193
>  [<     inline     >] C_SYSC_ftruncate fs/open.c:209
>  [<ffffffff8125d6d0>] compat_SyS_ftruncate+0x20/0x30 fs/open.c:207
>  [<ffffffff81ee681a>] ia32_do_call+0x1b/0x25
> arch/x86/entry/entry_64_compat.S:505
> 
> Mutexes locked by thread 829:
> Mutex 119525 is read locked here:
>  [<ffffffff810de882>] down_read_trylock+0x52/0x60 kernel/locking/rwsem.c:45
>  [<ffffffff81265428>] trylock_super+0x28/0x90 fs/super.c:369
>  [<ffffffff812ab85d>] __writeback_inodes_wb+0x7d/0x100 fs/fs-writeback.c:1553
>  [<ffffffff812abc8c>] wb_writeback+0x3ac/0x440 fs/fs-writeback.c:1666
>  [<     inline     >] wb_check_background_flush fs/fs-writeback.c:1746
>  [<     inline     >] wb_do_writeback fs/fs-writeback.c:1824
>  [<ffffffff812ac9df>] wb_workfn+0x43f/0x7e0 fs/fs-writeback.c:1852
>  [<ffffffff810b1d6e>] process_one_work+0x47e/0x930 kernel/workqueue.c:2036
>  [<ffffffff810b22d0>] worker_thread+0xb0/0x900 kernel/workqueue.c:2170
>  [<ffffffff810bba40>] kthread+0x150/0x170 kernel/kthread.c:209
>  [<ffffffff81ee420f>] ret_from_fork+0x3f/0x70 arch/x86/entry/entry_64.S:529
> 
> 
> The second memory access is read of head->b_page, while head is being freed.
> This followed by some other accesses to buffer_head, for example (this
> is read of bh_offset(bh)):
> 
> Previous read at 0xffff8800bb412e88 of size 8 by thread 829 on CPU 0:
>  [<ffffffff81345e2a>] ext4_bio_write_page+0xfa/0x5e0 fs/ext4/page-io.c:460
>  [<ffffffff81337786>] mpage_submit_page+0x96/0x100 fs/ext4/inode.c:1868
>  [<ffffffff813379fe>] mpage_process_page_bufs+0x20e/0x220 fs/ext4/inode.c:1973
>  [<ffffffff81338520>] mpage_prepare_extent_to_map+0x450/0x500
> fs/ext4/inode.c:2351 (discriminator 2)
>  [<ffffffff8133ffaa>] ext4_writepages+0x64a/0x15e0 fs/ext4/inode.c:2505
>  [<ffffffff811e0453>] do_writepages+0x53/0x80 mm/page-writeback.c:2332
>  [<ffffffff812aac2f>] __writeback_single_inode+0x7f/0x510
> fs/fs-writeback.c:1259 (discriminator 3)
>  [<ffffffff812ab5b8>] writeback_sb_inodes+0x4f8/0x720 fs/fs-writeback.c:1516
>  [<ffffffff812ab8a4>] __writeback_inodes_wb+0xc4/0x100 fs/fs-writeback.c:1562
>  [<ffffffff812abc8c>] wb_writeback+0x3ac/0x440 fs/fs-writeback.c:1666
>  [<     inline     >] wb_check_background_flush fs/fs-writeback.c:1746
>  [<     inline     >] wb_do_writeback fs/fs-writeback.c:1824
>  [<ffffffff812ac9df>] wb_workfn+0x43f/0x7e0 fs/fs-writeback.c:1852
>  [<ffffffff810b1d6e>] process_one_work+0x47e/0x930 kernel/workqueue.c:2036
>  [<ffffffff810b22d0>] worker_thread+0xb0/0x900 kernel/workqueue.c:2170
>  [<ffffffff810bba40>] kthread+0x150/0x170 kernel/kthread.c:209
>  [<ffffffff81ee420f>] ret_from_fork+0x3f/0x70 arch/x86/entry/entry_64.S:529
> 
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