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Date:   Mon, 24 Aug 2020 12:34:57 -0400
From:   Sasha Levin <sashal@...nel.org>
To:     linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org, stable@...r.kernel.org
Cc:     brookxu <brookxu.cn@...il.com>, Chunguang Xu <brookxu@...cent.com>,
        Theodore Ts'o <tytso@....edu>, Sasha Levin <sashal@...nel.org>,
        linux-doc@...r.kernel.org, linux-ext4@...r.kernel.org
Subject: [PATCH AUTOSEL 5.8 57/63] ext4: limit the length of per-inode prealloc list

From: brookxu <brookxu.cn@...il.com>

[ Upstream commit 27bc446e2def38db3244a6eb4bb1d6312936610a ]

In the scenario of writing sparse files, the per-inode prealloc list may
be very long, resulting in high overhead for ext4_mb_use_preallocated().
To circumvent this problem, we limit the maximum length of per-inode
prealloc list to 512 and allow users to modify it.

After patching, we observed that the sys ratio of cpu has dropped, and
the system throughput has increased significantly. We created a process
to write the sparse file, and the running time of the process on the
fixed kernel was significantly reduced, as follows:

Running time on unfixed kernel:
[root@...CENT64 ~]# time taskset 0x01 ./sparse /data1/sparce.dat
real    0m2.051s
user    0m0.008s
sys     0m2.026s

Running time on fixed kernel:
[root@...CENT64 ~]# time taskset 0x01 ./sparse /data1/sparce.dat
real    0m0.471s
user    0m0.004s
sys     0m0.395s

Signed-off-by: Chunguang Xu <brookxu@...cent.com>
Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/d7a98178-056b-6db5-6bce-4ead23f4a257@gmail.com
Signed-off-by: Theodore Ts'o <tytso@....edu>
Signed-off-by: Sasha Levin <sashal@...nel.org>
---
 Documentation/admin-guide/ext4.rst |  3 ++
 fs/ext4/ext4.h                     |  4 +-
 fs/ext4/extents.c                  | 10 ++--
 fs/ext4/file.c                     |  2 +-
 fs/ext4/indirect.c                 |  2 +-
 fs/ext4/inode.c                    |  6 +--
 fs/ext4/ioctl.c                    |  2 +-
 fs/ext4/mballoc.c                  | 74 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++----
 fs/ext4/mballoc.h                  |  4 ++
 fs/ext4/move_extent.c              |  4 +-
 fs/ext4/super.c                    |  3 +-
 fs/ext4/sysfs.c                    |  2 +
 include/trace/events/ext4.h        | 17 ++++---
 13 files changed, 104 insertions(+), 29 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/ext4.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/ext4.rst
index 9443fcef18760..f37d0743fd668 100644
--- a/Documentation/admin-guide/ext4.rst
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/ext4.rst
@@ -482,6 +482,9 @@ Files in /sys/fs/ext4/<devname>:
         multiple of this tuning parameter if the stripe size is not set in the
         ext4 superblock
 
+  mb_max_inode_prealloc
+        The maximum length of per-inode ext4_prealloc_space list.
+
   mb_max_to_scan
         The maximum number of extents the multiblock allocator will search to
         find the best extent.
diff --git a/fs/ext4/ext4.h b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
index 6a76bd94277f0..b90d06334410c 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/ext4.h
+++ b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
@@ -1054,6 +1054,7 @@ struct ext4_inode_info {
 	struct timespec64 i_crtime;
 
 	/* mballoc */
+	atomic_t i_prealloc_active;
 	struct list_head i_prealloc_list;
 	spinlock_t i_prealloc_lock;
 
@@ -1501,6 +1502,7 @@ struct ext4_sb_info {
 	unsigned int s_mb_stats;
 	unsigned int s_mb_order2_reqs;
 	unsigned int s_mb_group_prealloc;
+	unsigned int s_mb_max_inode_prealloc;
 	unsigned int s_max_dir_size_kb;
 	/* where last allocation was done - for stream allocation */
 	unsigned long s_mb_last_group;
@@ -2654,7 +2656,7 @@ extern int ext4_mb_release(struct super_block *);
 extern ext4_fsblk_t ext4_mb_new_blocks(handle_t *,
 				struct ext4_allocation_request *, int *);
 extern int ext4_mb_reserve_blocks(struct super_block *, int);
-extern void ext4_discard_preallocations(struct inode *);
+extern void ext4_discard_preallocations(struct inode *, unsigned int);
 extern int __init ext4_init_mballoc(void);
 extern void ext4_exit_mballoc(void);
 extern void ext4_free_blocks(handle_t *handle, struct inode *inode,
diff --git a/fs/ext4/extents.c b/fs/ext4/extents.c
index 221f240eae604..a40f928dcb1f1 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/extents.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/extents.c
@@ -100,7 +100,7 @@ static int ext4_ext_trunc_restart_fn(struct inode *inode, int *dropped)
 	 * i_mutex. So we can safely drop the i_data_sem here.
 	 */
 	BUG_ON(EXT4_JOURNAL(inode) == NULL);
-	ext4_discard_preallocations(inode);
+	ext4_discard_preallocations(inode, 0);
 	up_write(&EXT4_I(inode)->i_data_sem);
 	*dropped = 1;
 	return 0;
@@ -4272,7 +4272,7 @@ int ext4_ext_map_blocks(handle_t *handle, struct inode *inode,
 			 * not a good idea to call discard here directly,
 			 * but otherwise we'd need to call it every free().
 			 */
-			ext4_discard_preallocations(inode);
+			ext4_discard_preallocations(inode, 0);
 			if (flags & EXT4_GET_BLOCKS_DELALLOC_RESERVE)
 				fb_flags = EXT4_FREE_BLOCKS_NO_QUOT_UPDATE;
 			ext4_free_blocks(handle, inode, NULL, newblock,
@@ -5299,7 +5299,7 @@ static int ext4_collapse_range(struct inode *inode, loff_t offset, loff_t len)
 	}
 
 	down_write(&EXT4_I(inode)->i_data_sem);
-	ext4_discard_preallocations(inode);
+	ext4_discard_preallocations(inode, 0);
 
 	ret = ext4_es_remove_extent(inode, punch_start,
 				    EXT_MAX_BLOCKS - punch_start);
@@ -5313,7 +5313,7 @@ static int ext4_collapse_range(struct inode *inode, loff_t offset, loff_t len)
 		up_write(&EXT4_I(inode)->i_data_sem);
 		goto out_stop;
 	}
-	ext4_discard_preallocations(inode);
+	ext4_discard_preallocations(inode, 0);
 
 	ret = ext4_ext_shift_extents(inode, handle, punch_stop,
 				     punch_stop - punch_start, SHIFT_LEFT);
@@ -5445,7 +5445,7 @@ static int ext4_insert_range(struct inode *inode, loff_t offset, loff_t len)
 		goto out_stop;
 
 	down_write(&EXT4_I(inode)->i_data_sem);
-	ext4_discard_preallocations(inode);
+	ext4_discard_preallocations(inode, 0);
 
 	path = ext4_find_extent(inode, offset_lblk, NULL, 0);
 	if (IS_ERR(path)) {
diff --git a/fs/ext4/file.c b/fs/ext4/file.c
index 2a01e31a032c4..e3ab8ea1edf42 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/file.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/file.c
@@ -148,7 +148,7 @@ static int ext4_release_file(struct inode *inode, struct file *filp)
 		        !EXT4_I(inode)->i_reserved_data_blocks)
 	{
 		down_write(&EXT4_I(inode)->i_data_sem);
-		ext4_discard_preallocations(inode);
+		ext4_discard_preallocations(inode, 0);
 		up_write(&EXT4_I(inode)->i_data_sem);
 	}
 	if (is_dx(inode) && filp->private_data)
diff --git a/fs/ext4/indirect.c b/fs/ext4/indirect.c
index be2b66eb65f7a..ec6b930928cf6 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/indirect.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/indirect.c
@@ -696,7 +696,7 @@ static int ext4_ind_trunc_restart_fn(handle_t *handle, struct inode *inode,
 	 * i_mutex. So we can safely drop the i_data_sem here.
 	 */
 	BUG_ON(EXT4_JOURNAL(inode) == NULL);
-	ext4_discard_preallocations(inode);
+	ext4_discard_preallocations(inode, 0);
 	up_write(&EXT4_I(inode)->i_data_sem);
 	*dropped = 1;
 	return 0;
diff --git a/fs/ext4/inode.c b/fs/ext4/inode.c
index 10dd470876b30..bb9e1cde29464 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/inode.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/inode.c
@@ -383,7 +383,7 @@ void ext4_da_update_reserve_space(struct inode *inode,
 	 */
 	if ((ei->i_reserved_data_blocks == 0) &&
 	    !inode_is_open_for_write(inode))
-		ext4_discard_preallocations(inode);
+		ext4_discard_preallocations(inode, 0);
 }
 
 static int __check_block_validity(struct inode *inode, const char *func,
@@ -4056,7 +4056,7 @@ int ext4_punch_hole(struct inode *inode, loff_t offset, loff_t length)
 	if (stop_block > first_block) {
 
 		down_write(&EXT4_I(inode)->i_data_sem);
-		ext4_discard_preallocations(inode);
+		ext4_discard_preallocations(inode, 0);
 
 		ret = ext4_es_remove_extent(inode, first_block,
 					    stop_block - first_block);
@@ -4211,7 +4211,7 @@ int ext4_truncate(struct inode *inode)
 
 	down_write(&EXT4_I(inode)->i_data_sem);
 
-	ext4_discard_preallocations(inode);
+	ext4_discard_preallocations(inode, 0);
 
 	if (ext4_test_inode_flag(inode, EXT4_INODE_EXTENTS))
 		err = ext4_ext_truncate(handle, inode);
diff --git a/fs/ext4/ioctl.c b/fs/ext4/ioctl.c
index 999cf6add39c6..a5fcc238c6693 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/ioctl.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/ioctl.c
@@ -202,7 +202,7 @@ static long swap_inode_boot_loader(struct super_block *sb,
 	reset_inode_seed(inode);
 	reset_inode_seed(inode_bl);
 
-	ext4_discard_preallocations(inode);
+	ext4_discard_preallocations(inode, 0);
 
 	err = ext4_mark_inode_dirty(handle, inode);
 	if (err < 0) {
diff --git a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
index 9ed108b5bd7fd..b5fe1466cea85 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
@@ -2755,6 +2755,7 @@ int ext4_mb_init(struct super_block *sb)
 	sbi->s_mb_stats = MB_DEFAULT_STATS;
 	sbi->s_mb_stream_request = MB_DEFAULT_STREAM_THRESHOLD;
 	sbi->s_mb_order2_reqs = MB_DEFAULT_ORDER2_REQS;
+	sbi->s_mb_max_inode_prealloc = MB_DEFAULT_MAX_INODE_PREALLOC;
 	/*
 	 * The default group preallocation is 512, which for 4k block
 	 * sizes translates to 2 megabytes.  However for bigalloc file
@@ -3693,6 +3694,26 @@ void ext4_mb_generate_from_pa(struct super_block *sb, void *bitmap,
 	mb_debug(sb, "preallocated %d for group %u\n", preallocated, group);
 }
 
+static void ext4_mb_mark_pa_deleted(struct super_block *sb,
+				    struct ext4_prealloc_space *pa)
+{
+	struct ext4_inode_info *ei;
+
+	if (pa->pa_deleted) {
+		ext4_warning(sb, "deleted pa, type:%d, pblk:%llu, lblk:%u, len:%d\n",
+			     pa->pa_type, pa->pa_pstart, pa->pa_lstart,
+			     pa->pa_len);
+		return;
+	}
+
+	pa->pa_deleted = 1;
+
+	if (pa->pa_type == MB_INODE_PA) {
+		ei = EXT4_I(pa->pa_inode);
+		atomic_dec(&ei->i_prealloc_active);
+	}
+}
+
 static void ext4_mb_pa_callback(struct rcu_head *head)
 {
 	struct ext4_prealloc_space *pa;
@@ -3725,7 +3746,7 @@ static void ext4_mb_put_pa(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
 		return;
 	}
 
-	pa->pa_deleted = 1;
+	ext4_mb_mark_pa_deleted(sb, pa);
 	spin_unlock(&pa->pa_lock);
 
 	grp_blk = pa->pa_pstart;
@@ -3849,6 +3870,7 @@ ext4_mb_new_inode_pa(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
 	spin_lock(pa->pa_obj_lock);
 	list_add_rcu(&pa->pa_inode_list, &ei->i_prealloc_list);
 	spin_unlock(pa->pa_obj_lock);
+	atomic_inc(&ei->i_prealloc_active);
 }
 
 /*
@@ -4059,7 +4081,7 @@ ext4_mb_discard_group_preallocations(struct super_block *sb,
 		}
 
 		/* seems this one can be freed ... */
-		pa->pa_deleted = 1;
+		ext4_mb_mark_pa_deleted(sb, pa);
 
 		/* we can trust pa_free ... */
 		free += pa->pa_free;
@@ -4122,7 +4144,7 @@ ext4_mb_discard_group_preallocations(struct super_block *sb,
  *
  * FIXME!! Make sure it is valid at all the call sites
  */
-void ext4_discard_preallocations(struct inode *inode)
+void ext4_discard_preallocations(struct inode *inode, unsigned int needed)
 {
 	struct ext4_inode_info *ei = EXT4_I(inode);
 	struct super_block *sb = inode->i_sb;
@@ -4140,15 +4162,19 @@ void ext4_discard_preallocations(struct inode *inode)
 
 	mb_debug(sb, "discard preallocation for inode %lu\n",
 		 inode->i_ino);
-	trace_ext4_discard_preallocations(inode);
+	trace_ext4_discard_preallocations(inode,
+			atomic_read(&ei->i_prealloc_active), needed);
 
 	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&list);
 
+	if (needed == 0)
+		needed = UINT_MAX;
+
 repeat:
 	/* first, collect all pa's in the inode */
 	spin_lock(&ei->i_prealloc_lock);
-	while (!list_empty(&ei->i_prealloc_list)) {
-		pa = list_entry(ei->i_prealloc_list.next,
+	while (!list_empty(&ei->i_prealloc_list) && needed) {
+		pa = list_entry(ei->i_prealloc_list.prev,
 				struct ext4_prealloc_space, pa_inode_list);
 		BUG_ON(pa->pa_obj_lock != &ei->i_prealloc_lock);
 		spin_lock(&pa->pa_lock);
@@ -4165,10 +4191,11 @@ void ext4_discard_preallocations(struct inode *inode)
 
 		}
 		if (pa->pa_deleted == 0) {
-			pa->pa_deleted = 1;
+			ext4_mb_mark_pa_deleted(sb, pa);
 			spin_unlock(&pa->pa_lock);
 			list_del_rcu(&pa->pa_inode_list);
 			list_add(&pa->u.pa_tmp_list, &list);
+			needed--;
 			continue;
 		}
 
@@ -4469,7 +4496,7 @@ ext4_mb_discard_lg_preallocations(struct super_block *sb,
 		BUG_ON(pa->pa_type != MB_GROUP_PA);
 
 		/* seems this one can be freed ... */
-		pa->pa_deleted = 1;
+		ext4_mb_mark_pa_deleted(sb, pa);
 		spin_unlock(&pa->pa_lock);
 
 		list_del_rcu(&pa->pa_inode_list);
@@ -4567,11 +4594,30 @@ static void ext4_mb_add_n_trim(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
 	return ;
 }
 
+/*
+ * if per-inode prealloc list is too long, trim some PA
+ */
+static void ext4_mb_trim_inode_pa(struct inode *inode)
+{
+	struct ext4_inode_info *ei = EXT4_I(inode);
+	struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(inode->i_sb);
+	int count, delta;
+
+	count = atomic_read(&ei->i_prealloc_active);
+	delta = (sbi->s_mb_max_inode_prealloc >> 2) + 1;
+	if (count > sbi->s_mb_max_inode_prealloc + delta) {
+		count -= sbi->s_mb_max_inode_prealloc;
+		ext4_discard_preallocations(inode, count);
+	}
+}
+
 /*
  * release all resource we used in allocation
  */
 static int ext4_mb_release_context(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
 {
+	struct inode *inode = ac->ac_inode;
+	struct ext4_inode_info *ei = EXT4_I(inode);
 	struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(ac->ac_sb);
 	struct ext4_prealloc_space *pa = ac->ac_pa;
 	if (pa) {
@@ -4598,6 +4644,17 @@ static int ext4_mb_release_context(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
 			spin_unlock(pa->pa_obj_lock);
 			ext4_mb_add_n_trim(ac);
 		}
+
+		if (pa->pa_type == MB_INODE_PA) {
+			/*
+			 * treat per-inode prealloc list as a lru list, then try
+			 * to trim the least recently used PA.
+			 */
+			spin_lock(pa->pa_obj_lock);
+			list_move(&pa->pa_inode_list, &ei->i_prealloc_list);
+			spin_unlock(pa->pa_obj_lock);
+		}
+
 		ext4_mb_put_pa(ac, ac->ac_sb, pa);
 	}
 	if (ac->ac_bitmap_page)
@@ -4607,6 +4664,7 @@ static int ext4_mb_release_context(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
 	if (ac->ac_flags & EXT4_MB_HINT_GROUP_ALLOC)
 		mutex_unlock(&ac->ac_lg->lg_mutex);
 	ext4_mb_collect_stats(ac);
+	ext4_mb_trim_inode_pa(inode);
 	return 0;
 }
 
diff --git a/fs/ext4/mballoc.h b/fs/ext4/mballoc.h
index 6b4d17c2935d6..e75b4749aa1c2 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/mballoc.h
+++ b/fs/ext4/mballoc.h
@@ -73,6 +73,10 @@
  */
 #define MB_DEFAULT_GROUP_PREALLOC	512
 
+/*
+ * maximum length of inode prealloc list
+ */
+#define MB_DEFAULT_MAX_INODE_PREALLOC	512
 
 struct ext4_free_data {
 	/* this links the free block information from sb_info */
diff --git a/fs/ext4/move_extent.c b/fs/ext4/move_extent.c
index 1ed86fb6c3026..0d601b8228753 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/move_extent.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/move_extent.c
@@ -686,8 +686,8 @@ ext4_move_extents(struct file *o_filp, struct file *d_filp, __u64 orig_blk,
 
 out:
 	if (*moved_len) {
-		ext4_discard_preallocations(orig_inode);
-		ext4_discard_preallocations(donor_inode);
+		ext4_discard_preallocations(orig_inode, 0);
+		ext4_discard_preallocations(donor_inode, 0);
 	}
 
 	ext4_ext_drop_refs(path);
diff --git a/fs/ext4/super.c b/fs/ext4/super.c
index f3614299ffd09..0b38bf29c07e0 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/super.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/super.c
@@ -1123,6 +1123,7 @@ static struct inode *ext4_alloc_inode(struct super_block *sb)
 	inode_set_iversion(&ei->vfs_inode, 1);
 	spin_lock_init(&ei->i_raw_lock);
 	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&ei->i_prealloc_list);
+	atomic_set(&ei->i_prealloc_active, 0);
 	spin_lock_init(&ei->i_prealloc_lock);
 	ext4_es_init_tree(&ei->i_es_tree);
 	rwlock_init(&ei->i_es_lock);
@@ -1216,7 +1217,7 @@ void ext4_clear_inode(struct inode *inode)
 {
 	invalidate_inode_buffers(inode);
 	clear_inode(inode);
-	ext4_discard_preallocations(inode);
+	ext4_discard_preallocations(inode, 0);
 	ext4_es_remove_extent(inode, 0, EXT_MAX_BLOCKS);
 	dquot_drop(inode);
 	if (EXT4_I(inode)->jinode) {
diff --git a/fs/ext4/sysfs.c b/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
index 6c9fc9e21c138..92f04e9e94413 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
@@ -215,6 +215,7 @@ EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_min_to_scan, s_mb_min_to_scan);
 EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_order2_req, s_mb_order2_reqs);
 EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_stream_req, s_mb_stream_request);
 EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_group_prealloc, s_mb_group_prealloc);
+EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_max_inode_prealloc, s_mb_max_inode_prealloc);
 EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(extent_max_zeroout_kb, s_extent_max_zeroout_kb);
 EXT4_ATTR(trigger_fs_error, 0200, trigger_test_error);
 EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(err_ratelimit_interval_ms, s_err_ratelimit_state.interval);
@@ -257,6 +258,7 @@ static struct attribute *ext4_attrs[] = {
 	ATTR_LIST(mb_order2_req),
 	ATTR_LIST(mb_stream_req),
 	ATTR_LIST(mb_group_prealloc),
+	ATTR_LIST(mb_max_inode_prealloc),
 	ATTR_LIST(max_writeback_mb_bump),
 	ATTR_LIST(extent_max_zeroout_kb),
 	ATTR_LIST(trigger_fs_error),
diff --git a/include/trace/events/ext4.h b/include/trace/events/ext4.h
index cc41d692ae8ed..628db6a07fda0 100644
--- a/include/trace/events/ext4.h
+++ b/include/trace/events/ext4.h
@@ -746,24 +746,29 @@ TRACE_EVENT(ext4_mb_release_group_pa,
 );
 
 TRACE_EVENT(ext4_discard_preallocations,
-	TP_PROTO(struct inode *inode),
+	TP_PROTO(struct inode *inode, unsigned int len, unsigned int needed),
 
-	TP_ARGS(inode),
+	TP_ARGS(inode, len, needed),
 
 	TP_STRUCT__entry(
-		__field(	dev_t,	dev			)
-		__field(	ino_t,	ino			)
+		__field(	dev_t,		dev		)
+		__field(	ino_t,		ino		)
+		__field(	unsigned int,	len		)
+		__field(	unsigned int,	needed		)
 
 	),
 
 	TP_fast_assign(
 		__entry->dev	= inode->i_sb->s_dev;
 		__entry->ino	= inode->i_ino;
+		__entry->len	= len;
+		__entry->needed	= needed;
 	),
 
-	TP_printk("dev %d,%d ino %lu",
+	TP_printk("dev %d,%d ino %lu len: %u needed %u",
 		  MAJOR(__entry->dev), MINOR(__entry->dev),
-		  (unsigned long) __entry->ino)
+		  (unsigned long) __entry->ino, __entry->len,
+		  __entry->needed)
 );
 
 TRACE_EVENT(ext4_mb_discard_preallocations,
-- 
2.25.1

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