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Date:	Tue, 6 Oct 2015 11:37:57 -0400
From:	Stephen Smalley <>
To:	Ingo Molnar <>
Cc:,,, Thomas Gleixner <>,
	"H. Peter Anvin" <>,
	Peter Zijlstra <>,
	Andy Lutomirski <>,
	Borislav Petkov <>,
	Denys Vlasenko <>,
	Brian Gerst <>
Subject: Re: [PATCH v2] x86/mm: warn on W+x mappings

On 10/06/2015 03:32 AM, Ingo Molnar wrote:
> * Stephen Smalley <> wrote:
>> On 10/03/2015 07:27 AM, Ingo Molnar wrote:
>>> * Stephen Smalley <> wrote:
>>>> diff --git a/arch/x86/mm/init_64.c b/arch/x86/mm/init_64.c
>>>> index 30564e2..f8b1573 100644
>>>> --- a/arch/x86/mm/init_64.c
>>>> +++ b/arch/x86/mm/init_64.c
>>>> @@ -1150,6 +1150,8 @@ void mark_rodata_ro(void)
>>>>  	free_init_pages("unused kernel",
>>>>  			(unsigned long) __va(__pa_symbol(rodata_end)),
>>>>  			(unsigned long) __va(__pa_symbol(_sdata)));
>>>> +
>>>> +	debug_checkwx();
>>> Any reason to not do this on NX capable 32-bit kernels as well?
>> Done in v3.  However, I do see lots of W+X mappings there.
> Ha! That's a debug check plan gone very well! :)
>> [    1.012796] WARNING: CPU: 1 PID: 1 at arch/x86/mm/dump_pagetables.c:225 note_page+0x65d/0x840()
>> [    1.012803] x86/mm: Found insecure W+X mapping at address f4a00000/0xf4a00000
> What does this range correspond to on your kernel?

>From dmesg:
[    0.000000] virtual kernel memory layout:
                   fixmap  : 0xffa96000 - 0xfffff000   (5540 kB)
                   pkmap   : 0xff800000 - 0xffa00000   (2048 kB)
                   vmalloc : 0xf7ffe000 - 0xff7fe000   ( 120 MB)
                   lowmem  : 0xc0000000 - 0xf77fe000   ( 887 MB)
                     .init : 0xc0dde000 - 0xc0e9d000   ( 764 kB)
                     .data : 0xc0aa2ba0 - 0xc0ddca00   (3303 kB)
                     .text : 0xc0400000 - 0xc0aa2ba0   (6794 kB)

/sys/kernel/debug/kernel_page_tables seems to have many such mappings,
even before the reported one under Kernel Mapping, plus one in the vmalloc() area:

---[ Kernel Mapping ]---
0xc0000000-0xc009b000         620K     RW                 GLB NX pte
0xc009b000-0xc009c000           4K     ro                 GLB NX pte
0xc009c000-0xc009d000           4K     ro                 GLB x  pte
0xc009d000-0xc0200000        1420K     RW                 GLB NX pte
0xc0200000-0xc0400000           2M     RW         PSE     GLB NX pmd
0xc0400000-0xc0a00000           6M     ro         PSE     GLB x  pmd
0xc0a00000-0xc0aa3000         652K     ro                 GLB x  pte
0xc0aa3000-0xc0d2a000        2588K     ro                 GLB NX pte
0xc0d2a000-0xc1000000        2904K     RW                 GLB NX pte
0xc1000000-0xe7000000         608M     RW         PSE     GLB NX pmd
0xe7000000-0xe7027000         156K     RW                 GLB x  pte
0xe7027000-0xe7028000           4K     ro                 GLB x  pte
0xe7028000-0xe709b000         460K     RW                 GLB x  pte
0xe709b000-0xe709c000           4K     ro                 GLB x  pte
0xe709c000-0xe70b8000         112K     RW                 GLB x  pte
0xe70b8000-0xe70b9000           4K     ro                 GLB x  pte
0xe70b9000-0xe7108000         316K     RW                 GLB x  pte
0xe7108000-0xe710a000           8K     ro                 GLB x  pte
0xe710a000-0xe7127000         116K     RW                 GLB x  pte
0xe7127000-0xe712a000          12K     ro                 GLB x  pte
<many additional ones elided>
0xf2c5c000-0xf2c5d000           4K     ro                 GLB x  pte
0xf2c5d000-0xf2e00000        1676K     RW                 GLB x  pte
0xf2e00000-0xf4a00000          28M     RW         PSE     GLB NX pmd
0xf4a00000-0xf4b28000        1184K     RW                 GLB x  pte
0xf4b28000-0xf4c00000         864K     RW                 GLB NX pte
0xf4c00000-0xf5200000           6M     RW         PSE     GLB x  pmd
0xf5200000-0xf525d000         372K     RW                 GLB x  pte
0xf525d000-0xf525e000           4K     ro                 GLB x  pte
0xf525e000-0xf525f000           4K     RW                 GLB x  pte
0xf525f000-0xf5260000           4K     ro                 GLB x  pte
0xf5260000-0xf526a000          40K     RW                 GLB x  pte
0xf6400000-0xf658c000        1584K     RW                 GLB NX pte
0xf658c000-0xf6600000         464K     RW                 GLB x  pte
0xf6600000-0xf7600000          16M     RW         PSE     GLB NX pmd
0xf7600000-0xf77fe000        2040K     RW                 GLB NX pte
0xf77fe000-0xf7800000           8K                               pte
0xf7800000-0xf7e00000           6M                               pmd
0xf7e00000-0xf7ffe000        2040K                               pte
---[ vmalloc() Area ]---
0xf7ffe000-0xf7fff000           4K     RW                 GLB NX pte
0xf7fff000-0xf8000000           4K                               pte
0xf8000000-0xf8002000           8K     RW                 GLB NX pte
0xf86f3000-0xf8800000        1076K                               pte
0xf8800000-0xf8a00000           2M     RW PWT     PSE     GLB x  pmd
0xf8a00000-0xf8b00000           1M     RW PWT             GLB NX pte

$ grep -c 'RW.*x' kernel_page_tables 

There was also an earlier W+X mapping originally that I squelched via pci=nobios.
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