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Date:   Mon, 23 Jan 2017 23:00:51 +0800
From:   Herbert Xu <>
To:     Denys Vlasenko <>
Cc:     Josh Poimboeuf <>,
        Xiaodong Liu <>,
        Megha Dey <>,,,
Subject: Re: [PATCH] x86/crypto: make constants readonly, allow linker to
 merge them

On Thu, Jan 19, 2017 at 10:33:04PM +0100, Denys Vlasenko wrote:
> A lot of asm-optimized routines in arch/x86/crypto/ keep its
> constants in .data. This is wrong, they should be on .rodata.
> Mnay of these constants are the same in different modules.
> For example, 128-bit shuffle mask 0x000102030405060708090A0B0C0D0E0F
> exists in at least half a dozen places.
> There is a way to let linker merge them and use just one copy.
> The rules are as follows: mergeable objects of different sizes
> should not share sections. You can't put them all in one .rodata
> section, they will lose "mergeability".
> GCC puts its mergeable constants in ".rodata.cstSIZE" sections,
> or ".rodata.cstSIZE.<object_name>" if -fdata-sections is used.
> This patch does the same:
> 	.section .rodata.cst16.SHUF_MASK, "aM", @progbits, 16
> It is important that all data in such section consists of
> 16-byte elements, not larger ones, and there are no implicit
> use of one element from another.
> When this is not the case, use non-mergeable section:
> 	.section .rodata[.VAR_NAME], "a", @progbits
> This reduces .data by ~15 kbytes:
>     text    data     bss     dec      hex filename
> 11097415 2705840 2630712 16433967  fac32f vmlinux-prev.o
> 11112095 2690672 2630712 16433479  fac147 vmlinux.o
> Merged objects are visible in
> ffffffff81a28810 r POLY
> ffffffff81a28810 r POLY
> ffffffff81a28820 r TWOONE
> ffffffff81a28820 r TWOONE
> ffffffff81a28830 r PSHUFFLE_BYTE_FLIP_MASK <- merged regardless of
> ffffffff81a28830 r SHUF_MASK   <------------- the name difference
> ffffffff81a28830 r SHUF_MASK
> ffffffff81a28830 r SHUF_MASK
> ..
> ffffffff81a28d00 r K512 <- merged three identical 640-byte tables
> ffffffff81a28d00 r K512
> ffffffff81a28d00 r K512
> Use of object names in section name suffixes is not strictly necessary,
> but might help if someday link stage will use garbage collection
> to eliminate unused sections (ld --gc-sections).
> Signed-off-by: Denys Vlasenko <>

Patch applied.  Thanks.
Email: Herbert Xu <>
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