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Date:   Tue, 12 Dec 2017 10:05:26 +0800
From:   kemi <>
To:     Michal Hocko <>
Cc:     Greg Kroah-Hartman <>,
        Andrew Morton <>,
        Vlastimil Babka <>,
        Mel Gorman <>,
        Johannes Weiner <>,
        Christopher Lameter <>,
        Andrey Ryabinin <>,
        Nikolay Borisov <>,
        Pavel Tatashin <>,
        David Rientjes <>,
        Sebastian Andrzej Siewior <>,
        Dave <>,
        Andi Kleen <>,
        Tim Chen <>,
        Jesper Dangaard Brouer <>,
        Ying Huang <>,
        Aaron Lu <>, Aubrey Li <>,
        Linux MM <>,
        Linux Kernel <>
Subject: Re: [PATCH 1/2] mm: NUMA stats code cleanup and enhancement

On 2017年12月08日 16:47, Michal Hocko wrote:
> On Fri 08-12-17 16:38:46, kemi wrote:
>> On 2017年11月30日 17:45, Michal Hocko wrote:
>>> On Thu 30-11-17 17:32:08, kemi wrote:
>> After thinking about how to optimize our per-node stats more gracefully, 
>> we may add u64 vm_numa_stat_diff[] in struct per_cpu_nodestat, thus,
>> we can keep everything in per cpu counter and sum them up when read /proc
>> or /sys for numa stats. 
>> What's your idea for that? thanks
> I would like to see a strong argument why we cannot make it a _standard_
> node counter.

all right. 
This issue is first reported and discussed in 2017 MM summit, referred to
the topic "Provoking and fixing memory bottlenecks -Focused on the page 
allocator presentation" presented by Jesper.
2017-JesperBrouer.pdf (slide 15/16)

As you know, page allocator is too slow and has becomes a bottleneck
in high-speed network.
Jesper also showed some data in that presentation: with micro benchmark 
stresses order-0 fast path(per CPU pages), *32%* extra CPU cycles cost 
(143->97) comes from CONFIG_NUMA. 

When I took a look at this issue, I reproduced this issue and got a
similar result to Jesper's. Furthermore, with the help from Jesper, 
the overhead is root caused and the real cause of this overhead comes
from an extra level of function calls such as zone_statistics() (*10%*,
nearly 1/3, including __inc_numa_state), policy_zonelist, get_task_policy(),
policy_nodemask and etc (perf profiling cpu cycles).  zone_statistics() 
is the biggest one introduced by CONFIG_NUMA in fast path that we can 
do something for optimizing page allocator. Plus, the overhead of 
zone_statistics() significantly increase with more and more cpu 
cores and nodes due to cache bouncing.

Therefore, we submitted a patch before to mitigate the overhead of 
zone_statistics() by reducing global NUMA counter update frequency 
(enlarge threshold size, as suggested by Dave Hansen). I also would
like to have an implementation of a "_standard_node counter" for NUMA
stats, but I wonder how we can keep the performance gain at the
same time.

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