lists.openwall.net   lists  /  announce  owl-users  owl-dev  john-users  john-dev  passwdqc-users  yescrypt  popa3d-users  /  oss-security  kernel-hardening  musl  sabotage  tlsify  passwords  /  crypt-dev  xvendor  /  Bugtraq  Full-Disclosure  linux-kernel  linux-netdev  linux-ext4  linux-hardening  PHC 
Open Source and information security mailing list archives
 
Hash Suite: Windows password security audit tool. GUI, reports in PDF.
[<prev] [next>] [<thread-prev] [thread-next>] [day] [month] [year] [list]
Date:   Sat, 12 Dec 2020 19:48:59 -0800
From:   Florian Fainelli <f.fainelli@...il.com>
To:     Vladimir Oltean <vladimir.oltean@....com>,
        Andrew Lunn <andrew@...n.ch>,
        Vivien Didelot <vivien.didelot@...il.com>,
        Jakub Kicinski <kuba@...nel.org>, netdev@...r.kernel.org,
        linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org, bridge@...ts.linux-foundation.org,
        Roopa Prabhu <roopa@...dia.com>,
        Nikolay Aleksandrov <nikolay@...dia.com>,
        "David S. Miller" <davem@...emloft.net>
Cc:     DENG Qingfang <dqfext@...il.com>,
        Tobias Waldekranz <tobias@...dekranz.com>,
        Marek Behun <marek.behun@....cz>,
        Russell King - ARM Linux admin <linux@...linux.org.uk>,
        Alexandra Winter <wintera@...ux.ibm.com>,
        Jiri Pirko <jiri@...nulli.us>,
        Ido Schimmel <idosch@...sch.org>,
        Claudiu Manoil <claudiu.manoil@....com>
Subject: Re: [PATCH v2 net-next 5/6] net: dsa: listen for
 SWITCHDEV_{FDB,DEL}_ADD_TO_DEVICE on foreign bridge neighbors



On 12/12/2020 6:40 PM, Vladimir Oltean wrote:
> Some DSA switches (and not only) cannot learn source MAC addresses from
> packets injected from the CPU. They only perform hardware address
> learning from inbound traffic.
> 
> This can be problematic when we have a bridge spanning some DSA switch
> ports and some non-DSA ports (which we'll call "foreign interfaces" from
> DSA's perspective).
> 
> There are 2 classes of problems created by the lack of learning on
> CPU-injected traffic:
> - excessive flooding, due to the fact that DSA treats those addresses as
>   unknown
> - the risk of stale routes, which can lead to temporary packet loss
> 
> To illustrate the second class, consider the following situation, which
> is common in production equipment (wireless access points, where there
> is a WLAN interface and an Ethernet switch, and these form a single
> bridging domain).
> 
>  AP 1:
>  +------------------------------------------------------------------------+
>  |                                          br0                           |
>  +------------------------------------------------------------------------+
>  +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
>  |    swp0    | |    swp1    | |    swp2    | |    swp3    | |    wlan0   |
>  +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
>        |                                                       ^        ^
>        |                                                       |        |
>        |                                                       |        |
>        |                                                    Client A  Client B
>        |
>        |
>        |
>  +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
>  |    swp0    | |    swp1    | |    swp2    | |    swp3    | |    wlan0   |
>  +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
>  +------------------------------------------------------------------------+
>  |                                          br0                           |
>  +------------------------------------------------------------------------+
>  AP 2
> 
> - br0 of AP 1 will know that Clients A and B are reachable via wlan0
> - the hardware fdb of a DSA switch driver today is not kept in sync with
>   the software entries on other bridge ports, so it will not know that
>   clients A and B are reachable via the CPU port UNLESS the hardware
>   switch itself performs SA learning from traffic injected from the CPU.
>   Nonetheless, a substantial number of switches don't.
> - the hardware fdb of the DSA switch on AP 2 may autonomously learn that
>   Client A and B are reachable through swp0. Therefore, the software br0
>   of AP 2 also may or may not learn this. In the example we're
>   illustrating, some Ethernet traffic has been going on, and br0 from AP
>   2 has indeed learnt that it can reach Client B through swp0.
> 
> One of the wireless clients, say Client B, disconnects from AP 1 and
> roams to AP 2. The topology now looks like this:
> 
>  AP 1:
>  +------------------------------------------------------------------------+
>  |                                          br0                           |
>  +------------------------------------------------------------------------+
>  +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
>  |    swp0    | |    swp1    | |    swp2    | |    swp3    | |    wlan0   |
>  +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
>        |                                                            ^
>        |                                                            |
>        |                                                         Client A
>        |
>        |
>        |                                                         Client B
>        |                                                            |
>        |                                                            v
>  +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
>  |    swp0    | |    swp1    | |    swp2    | |    swp3    | |    wlan0   |
>  +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
>  +------------------------------------------------------------------------+
>  |                                          br0                           |
>  +------------------------------------------------------------------------+
>  AP 2
> 
> - br0 of AP 1 still knows that Client A is reachable via wlan0 (no change)
> - br0 of AP 1 will (possibly) know that Client B has left wlan0. There
>   are cases where it might never find out though. Either way, DSA today
>   does not process that notification in any way.
> - the hardware FDB of the DSA switch on AP 1 may learn autonomously that
>   Client B can be reached via swp0, if it receives any packet with
>   Client 1's source MAC address over Ethernet.
> - the hardware FDB of the DSA switch on AP 2 still thinks that Client B
>   can be reached via swp0. It does not know that it has roamed to wlan0,
>   because it doesn't perform SA learning from the CPU port.
> 
> Now Client A contacts Client B.
> AP 1 routes the packet fine towards swp0 and delivers it on the Ethernet
> segment.
> AP 2 sees a frame on swp0 and its fdb says that the destination is swp0.
> Hairpinning is disabled => drop.
> 
> This problem comes from the fact that these switches have a 'blind spot'
> for addresses coming from software bridging. The generic solution is not
> to assume that hardware learning can be enabled somehow, but to listen
> to more bridge learning events. It turns out that the bridge driver does
> learn in software from all inbound frames, in __br_handle_local_finish.
> A proper SWITCHDEV_FDB_ADD_TO_DEVICE notification is emitted for the
> addresses serviced by the bridge on 'foreign' interfaces. The software
> bridge also does the right thing on migration, by notifying that the old
> entry is deleted, so that does not need to be special-cased in DSA. When
> it is deleted, we just need to delete our static FDB entry towards the
> CPU too, and wait.
> 
> The problem is that DSA currently only cares about SWITCHDEV_FDB_ADD_TO_DEVICE
> events received on its own interfaces, such as static FDB entries.
> 
> Luckily we can change that, and DSA can listen to all switchdev FDB
> add/del events in the system and figure out if those events were emitted
> by a bridge that spans at least one of DSA's own ports. In case that is
> true, DSA will also offload that address towards its own CPU port, in
> the eventuality that there might be bridge clients attached to the DSA
> switch who want to talk to the station connected to the foreign
> interface.
> 
> In terms of implementation, we need to keep the fdb_info->added_by_user
> check for the case where the switchdev event was targeted directly at a
> DSA switch port. But we don't need to look at that flag for snooped
> events. So the check is currently too late, we need to move it earlier.
> This also simplifies the code a bit, since we avoid uselessly allocating
> and freeing switchdev_work.
> 
> We could probably do some improvements in the future. For example,
> multi-bridge support is rudimentary at the moment. If there are two
> bridges spanning a DSA switch's ports, and both of them need to service
> the same MAC address, then what will happen is that the migration of one
> of those stations will trigger the deletion of the FDB entry from the
> CPU port while it is still used by other bridge. That could be improved
> with reference counting but is left for another time.
> 
> This behavior needs to be enabled at driver level by setting
> ds->learning_broken_on_cpu_port = true. This is because we don't want to
> inflict a potential performance penalty (accesses through MDIO/I2C/SPI
> are expensive) to hardware that really doesn't need it because address
> learning on the CPU port works there.
> 
> Reported-by: DENG Qingfang <dqfext@...il.com>
> Signed-off-by: Vladimir Oltean <vladimir.oltean@....com>

Reviewed-by: Florian Fainelli <f.fainelli@...il.com>

The implementation is much simpler than I though it would be, nice! Just
in case you need to spin a v2, I would probably name the flag
"learning_on_cpu_port_challenged", or preferably
"no_learning_on_cpu_port", the term "broken" is a bit subjective IMHO
(although honestly, why not learn from the CPU port though...)
-- 
Florian

Powered by blists - more mailing lists